Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 4:17 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 4:17 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 4:17 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 4:17 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 4:17 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 4:17 pm
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What Is Covid Vaccine Made Of

The Different Types Of Covid

Whats in a Covid-19 vaccine?

This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines from how they work and how theyre made to ensuring safety and equitable access in WHOs Vaccines Explained series.

As of December 2020, there are over 200 vaccine candidates for COVID-19 being developed. Of these, at least 52 candidate vaccines are in human trials. There are several others currently in phase I/II, which will enter phase III in the coming months .

Travel In Asia Has Yet To Rebound As Tourists Navigate A Patchwork Of Policies

While fully vaccinated Americans can fly to hundreds of cities and towns across the country and 27 European capitals, border rules across Asia remain far stricter than in any other region in the world.

Governments in Asia have promised to reopen their borders because of the improved Covid situation and progress on vaccinations. But they are falling behind the rest of the world. Air travel in August across the region was still 10 percent of what it was two years ago, lagging the rebound in the United States. Travelers must navigate an inconsistent patchwork of border restrictions, visa rules and travel corridors one likely to continue for months.

Vaccinated travelers from a handful of countries, including Britain and Spain, wont have to quarantine to visit Singapore. But Ireland and Portugal, which have comparable vaccination rates, didnt make the list. And visitors from only four places in Asia Hong Kong, Macau, China and Taiwan may enter by applying for a special pass.

The list of eligible countries from which tourists can visit Indonesia is longer, with travelers from 19 countries cleared to visit Bali and the Riau Islands. People from India, which has vaccinated about a quarter of its population, are good to travel. But those from Malaysia, which has vaccinated 72 percent, or Singapore, 82 percent, arent yet welcome.

Once I Have Been Vaccinated Against Coronavirus Am I Exempt From Restrictions

Fully vaccinated individuals should still follow public health measures in public, in groups that may have vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, or in situations with individuals from multiple households. However, vaccinated individuals can gather with those from another home who are also vaccinated can gather without masks in their homes for meals.

Some have wondered why we still need to practice recommended public health measures as more individuals are vaccinated. Unfortunately, a large percentage of the population will need to be immune to slow or stop the spread of the virus. Two factors are important for understanding why:

  • While the vaccines appear to be highly effective at preventing disease, they might not prevent asymptomatic infection, meaning vaccine recipients might still be able to get infected, but not have symptoms and, therefore, unwittingly spread the virus. The companies are doing additional studies to better understand whether this is the case.
  • Scientists estimate that to control COVID-19, about 8 of every 10 people will need to be immune. Given that the U.S. population is more than 330 million people, this means that almost 200 million of them will need to be immune to reach this goal either from vaccination or natural infection.

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If I Am Taking Anticoagulants Can I Get The Covid

Patients on blood thinners are asked to speak with a healthcare provider because the vaccine is given intramuscularly, which increases the risk for bleeding. The vaccine itself does not increase the risk for this group of patients.

Find out more in this Parents PACK article, “Medications and COVID-19 Vaccines: What You Should Know.”

What Are The Side Effects Of The Covid

Coronavirus Pandemic: COVID

Side effects from both the mRNA and adenovirus vaccines are caused as part of the immune response to the vaccine.

The most common side effects from the mRNA vaccines are:

  • Fatigue
  • Muscle aches
  • Fever

Side effects occurred during the first seven to eight days after vaccination but were most likely to occur one or two days after receipt of the vaccine. Side effects were more often experienced by younger, rather than older vaccine recipients.

Two rare, but potentially dangerous conditions, have been identified following receipt of the adenovirus-based vaccines, such as the J& J/Janssen version:

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Turning Dna Into Rna: Andover Massachusetts

In Andover, the lines of DNA are transcribed into messenger RNA, the mRNA in the name of the vaccine technology and what makes the vaccines unique.

In a cell, RNA acts like a “messenger” carrying the instruction of the DNA to the part of the cell where a protein is made. In this case, it is encoded with the message to churn out the distinctive SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

In effect, it enables the body to produce its own vaccine.

The body’s immune system can “see” these foreign proteins and begins creating antibodies to fight them. That way when a person is exposed to COVID-19, their immune system will already know how to fight it off and they will be protected.

In a highly technical process, the linear strands of DNA are turned into RNA in 40-liter vessels full of enzymes and chemicals over the course of three to four days, said Ruesch.

That one 40-liter batch, depending on sampling and things like that, can make up to 10 million doses of vaccine, she said.

All this happens in an extremely high-tech manufacturing suite. The air is filtered, the equipment constantly tested and all employees wear head-to-toe cleanroom coveralls to ensure nothing is introduced into the vaccine as its made.

Currently, the Andover plant runs two batches a week, but it is gearing up to add more in 2021.

At that point, it will be able to produce enough mRNA for 40 million doses per week.

Wait We Already Have An Animal Vaccine

The COVID vaccines for humans were developed in record time, surpassing many of the most optimistic predictions from early in the pandemic. So it might seem surprising that a drug company has put out an animal vaccine at nearly the same pace.

But it shouldnt: Animal coronavirus vaccines have actually been around since the 1950s, says Linda Saif, a virologist at the Ohio State University, who has studied and developed coronavirus vaccines for decades.

Pigs, cows, chickens, and even cats and dogs are susceptible to other coronaviruses, sometimes with devastating consequences. A chicken coronavirus can affect the reproductive system of hens, causing them to stop laying eggs. Another affects cattle, resulting in everything from diarrhea in calves to respiratory infections in feedlot cattle. And in the early 2000s, a virulent strain of a pig coronavirus swept across the US, killing millions of piglets.

The first chicken coronavirus vaccines were developed as far back as the 1950s, Saif says, although the technology has evolved since. The major problem is the variants, she says. Every few years, they have to create new vaccines.

Even though vaccines exist for a range of animal coronaviruses, theyre very specific, says Kumar. Every coronavirus has to be protected by its own vaccine.

Right now, the vaccine is being administered as an experimental treatment in advance of the licensing process. But licensing a vaccine for an entire zoo would pose a huge hurdle.

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Response Of Patients With Preexisting Diseases

Hematologic malignancies

In a study on the serologic response to COVID-19 messenger RNA vaccines among patients with lymphoma, leukemia and myeloma, it was found that one-quarter of patients did not produce measurable antibodies, varying by blood cancer type. Patients with these conditions need to take precautions to avoid exposure to COVID-19.

New Approach To Vaccines

Preparations Made For Coronavirus Vaccine

mRNA vaccines are a new type of vaccine to protect against infectious diseases. To trigger an immune response, many vaccines put a weakened or inactivated germ into our bodies. Not mRNA vaccines. Instead, they teach our cells how to make a proteinor even just a piece of a proteinthat triggers an immune response inside our bodies. That immune response, which produces antibodies, is what protects us from getting infected if the real virus enters our bodies.

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Can I Still Get Covid

Cases of infection post-vaccine, called breakthrough cases, are being reported, but experts stress they are still relatively uncommon. Whats more, its rare to get an infection that results in hospitalization or death once you are fully vaccinated.

According to data collected by the CDC, less than 1 percent of fully vaccinated Americans have been hospitalized or have died from COVID-19. The vast majority of serious illness and death is occurring in unvaccinated individuals.

Breakthrough infections, however, can contribute to the spread of COVID-19. New data show that fully vaccinated people who become infected with the delta variant can pass the virus on to others, which is why health officials now recommend that vaccinated individuals in areas of high community transmission wear a face mask in indoor public settings.

The masking recommendation was updated to ensure the vaccinated public would not unknowingly transmit virus to others, including their unvaccinated or immunocompromised loved ones, CDC Director Rochelle Walensky said.

Struggling With Rising Cases And Low Vaccination Rates Moscow Announces A Lockdown

MOSCOW Schools, shops and restaurants in the city of Moscow will close next week, municipal officials said, in one of the tightest lockdowns in the Russian capital since the pandemic began, a measure made necessary by low vaccination rates.

Russias coronavirus response, like that of many other countries, has seesawed between strict controls and lax enforcement of mask-wearing and vaccination rules. Russia pivoted again this week toward tighter lockdowns as reports of new cases and Covid-19 deaths climbed.

Reported cases are up 33 percent over the last two weeks, reaching more than 32,400, according to a New York Times database. And on average over the past week, 983 people a day died from the coronavirus on some days that number exceeded 1,000. Only Russian-made coronavirus vaccines are available in the country, and many people are hesitant to get them. Russias vaccination rate of 33 percent of the population is lower than the global average of 37 percent and far behind the rates in most of Europe.

To combat the surge in cases and deaths, President Vladimir V. Putin on Wednesday declared a countrywide nonworking week from Oct. 30 to Nov. 7, extending a regular fall holiday by several days. The restrictions the city of Moscow announced on Thursday were even stricter.

Over the summer, Moscow imposed, but then dropped, a requirement that patrons be vaccinated to eat in some restaurants or to visit bars. Enforcement of mask-wearing rules in Russia is generally lax.

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What Is The Difference Between The First And Second Dose Of The Covid

In the United States, the ingredients in the vial for dose 1 and dose 2 of the same brand are exactly the same. When people talk about dose 1 doses and dose 2 doses, they are just talking about vaccine supply. If you arrive for dose 1 and the person behind you is getting dose 2, they can come out of the same vial.

One vaccine used in some other countries, Sputnik V, has different components in dose 1 and dose 2. Both are adenovirus vector vaccines, but dose 1 uses adenovirus 26 and dose 2 uses adenovirus 5 .

Us Pharmacies And States Face New Challenges As An Expanded Booster Rollout Begins

Enough doses of COVID

Now that federal regulators have cleared booster shots of all three coronavirus vaccines in use in the United States, state health authorities and pharmacies have begun rolling out plans to get even more shots in arms.

Dr. Rochelle P. Walensky, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, recommended Moderna and Johnson & Johnson boosters on Thursday for tens of millions of Americans, a move that came nearly a month after many Pfizer-BioNTech recipients were cleared for boosters of that companys vaccine.

The C.D.C. also gave a green light to a mix-and-match strategy so people who are eligible for boosters can decide to get a dose of a different type than the one they first received.

And as states, pharmacies and doctors began on Friday trying to get these shots into arms, they faced a variety of complex issues they will have to help people understand whether they are eligible and answer questions about which booster to get.

According to the C.D.C., certain groups of people who received their second dose of an mRNA vaccine six or more months ago are now eligible for a booster. Those who qualify are people 65 and older, those 18 and older who live in long-term care, and those who have underlying medical conditions or work or live in settings placing them at high risk of infection.

State health departments generally follow the recommendations of the C.D.C., and many were prepared to begin moving ahead with boosters.

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What Are Mrna Vaccines And How Do They Work To Help Prevent Covid

mRNA, or messenger RNA, is genetic material that contains instructions for making proteins. mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 contain synthetic mRNA. Inside the body, the mRNA enters human cells and instructs them to produce the “spike” protein found on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The body recognizes the spike protein as an invader, and starts producing antibodies against it. Soon after, the cell breaks down the mRNA into harmless pieces If the antibodies later encounter the actual virus, they are ready to recognize and destroy it before it causes illness.

Two mRNA vaccines, one created by Pfizer and BioNTech and another developed by Moderna, were granted emergency use authorization by the FDA in December 2020. In August 2021, the FDA granted full approval to the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine for use in people ages 16 years and older. The transition from EUA status to full licensure was based on additional data and longer follow-up showing that the vaccine met certain safety, effectiveness, and manufacturing quality standards.

Can Pregnant Women Get The Covid

Pregnant women were not included in the early COVID-19 vaccine studies, but some participants were either pregnant and did not know it or became pregnant during the course of the study. Likewise, tens of thousands of pregnant women have been immunized since the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines became available, and many of them are also being monitored through the CDCs V-safe program.

With data from thousands of these women now in hand, no concerns have been identified and the vaccine works. While pregnant women and their babies will continue to be monitored, the CDC recently changed its statement about COVID-19 vaccines for pregnant women to more clearly recommend these vaccines for pregnant women.

Two factors, in addition to the vaccine data, were important for informing vaccine recommendations for pregnant women:

  • First, some pregnant women are at high risk for COVID-19 because of their jobs, such as healthcare workers, or existing health conditions.
  • Second, pregnant women are more likely to be hospitalized and be admitted to the intensive care unit with COVID-19 than women of the same age who were infected but werent pregnant.

All pregnant women should keep these two important points in mind:

  • Pregnant women who get the COVID-19 vaccine should take acetaminophen if they develop a fever after vaccination, as fever during pregnancy can negatively affect a developing baby. Taking acetaminophen during pregnancy has been found to be safe.
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    Im Vaccinated What Can I Do Now

    Fully vaccinated people can participate in most indoor and outdoor activities without a mask and without physical distancing. In July 2021, the CDC advised all people, including those who are fully vaccinated, to wear masks in public indoor places in areas of the country with substantial or high transmission of the virus.

    In addition, youll still need to follow federal, state, tribal, and local laws, and workplace or business requirements around mask wearing and physical distancing.

    For people who are not fully vaccinated, the CDC continues to recommend mask wearing and other preventive measures in some outdoors settings and in most indoor settings.

    Israel Moves To Allow Tourists Back In If They Are Vaccinated

    Coronavirus: Unproven COVID-19 vaccine made available in China

    Prime Minister Naftali Bennett and Israeli health officials announced a plan on Thursday to allow vaccinated tourists to enter the country starting Nov. 1, the first time the country will open its borders to tourism since the start of the coronavirus pandemic.

    Since May, Israel has allowed entry only to immediate relatives of Israelis who are vaccinated or have recently recovered from a coronavirus infection, provided they obtain approval from the government. The new plan, which still requires official government approval, comes at a time when infection rates in Israel are steadily declining after a fourth wave.

    The country, which had one of the worlds fastest vaccination drives but has now been surpassed by more than 30 countries, is currently leading in booster shot distribution, with some 3.8 million of its 8.8 million people having received a third dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. Israelis lifted domestic restrictions and largely returned to normal in May.

    According to the office of the prime minister, tourists who have been fully vaccinated with most internationally recognized vaccines, as well as those who have recovered from Covid-19 within the last six months, will be allowed to enter the country, unless they are from red countries with severe outbreaks.

    Tourists qualified to enter the country can receive a digital Green Pass, allowing them to enter restaurants, cafes, bars and other indoor places in Israel.

    Hiba Yazbek

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    How Much Does The Coronavirus Vaccine Cost

    Coronavirus vaccines are free however, the Federal Trade Commission has warned of scams in which people are charging for vaccines. Read more here.

    Also, of note, while the vaccines are free, insurance companies may have to cover the cost of administering the vaccine. You should not, however, be charged any out-of-pocket fees when you go for your vaccine.

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