Should You Get The Covid
Moreover, the CDC found that antibody levels vary from person to person from natural immunity. No COVID-19 case is the same. So its hard for officials to determine how well someone is protected by natural immunity.
- The CDCs bottom line: Given whats known and not known about immunity, people who have been infected with the virus should still get vaccinated, according to The Washington Post.
Those with natural immunity might find it beneficial to get the vaccine, too. NPR reported that a number of studies found someone can gain an extraordinarily powerful immune response to the novel coronavirus if theyve been infected naturally and received full vaccination.
- One could reasonably predict that these people will be quite well protected against most and perhaps all of the SARS-CoV-2 variants that we are likely to see in the foreseeable future, Paul Bieniasz, a virologist at Rockefeller University who helped lead the research for several of these studies, told NPR.
Women Are Questioning Whether The Vaccine Affects Their Menstrual Cycle
Some women say they have observed changes in the flow or timing of their period after getting vaccinated.
But so far this is purely anecdotal.
Its unlikely that the Covid vaccine would affect menstrual cycles, and theres no plausible biological mechanism by which this would occur. However, there is little data on this topic, Dr. Klipstein said. Menstrual cycles are often understudied.
Even if the vaccine were to affect a womans period, Dr. Klipstein added, that effect should be seen only during the menstrual cycle in which the vaccine was given. We would not expect long-term effects.
What to Know About Covid-19 Booster Shots
The F.D.A. has authorized booster shots for millions of recipients of the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines. Pfizer and Moderna recipients who are eligible for a booster include people 65 and older, and younger adults at high risk of severe Covid-19 because of medical conditions or where they work. Eligible Pfizer and Moderna recipients can get a booster at least six months after their second dose. All Johnson & Johnson recipients will be eligible for a second shot at least two months after the first.
The C.D.C. has said the conditions that qualify a person for a booster shot include: hypertension and heart disease diabetes or obesity cancer or blood disorders weakened immune system chronic lung, kidney or liver disease dementia and certain disabilities. Pregnant women and current and former smokers are also eligible.
Yes It Can Be Compared If
The effectiveness of COVID vaccines can be compared in countries that have rolled out different vaccines to the same populations. For instance, the latest data from the UK show both Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines have similar effectiveness. They both reliably prevent COVID-19 symptoms, hospitalisation, and death, even after a single dose. So what at first glance looks “best” according to efficacy results from clinical trials doesn’t always translate to the real world. The COVID vaccine you get today is not likely to be your last. As immunity naturally wanes after immunisation, periodic boosters will become necessary to maintain effective protection.
Yes You Can Now Mix And Match Vaccine Boosters
The FDA has authorized mixing COVID-19 boosters, which in the US means Moderna, Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson. Anyone eligible for a booster can get any of the available brands of coronavirus vaccines. If you received Johnson & Johnson and it’s been two months or longer since you received the initial dose, you’ll be able to get the Moderna or Pfizer booster. If you received Moderna or Pfizer for your first two shots, you could pick any authorized vaccine — including J& J — if you qualify and it’s been six months or longer since your second shot.
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What Do We Know About The Novavax Covid
The Novavax COVID-19 vaccine appears to be effective and safe, according to an analysis of phase 3 trial results released by the company in a press release. The trial found the vaccine to be 90% effective overall, and 100% effective against moderate and severe disease. The vaccine requires two doses, given three weeks apart, and may be stored using standard refrigeration.
The PREVENT-19 trial enrolled 29,960 participants, ages 18 years and older, across the US and Mexico. Two-thirds of the participants received the Novavax vaccine and one-third received a placebo. The trial was randomized, and observer-blinded, meaning the study participants and those evaluating the study endpoints did not know which participants received the vaccine.
Between January 25 and April 30, 2021, there were 77 confirmed cases of COVID-19 among the study participants. Of these, 63 occurred in the placebo group and 14 occurred in the vaccine group. All of the cases that occurred in the vaccine group were mild. Of those that occurred in the placebo group, 10 were moderate and four were severe. This translated to 100% efficacy against moderate and severe disease. The vaccine was 91% effective in people at high risk, which the study defined as people 65 years or older, with a medical condition that increased risk of severe COVID illness, or whose jobs increased their risk of exposure to COVID-19.
Side effects from the vaccine included arm pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, and muscle pain.
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What About Side Effects
Overall, Pfizer’s clinical trial data suggests younger children will experience fewer side effects than adolescents or young adults. Side effects that did occur, such as fever or redness around where the shot was given, “were mostly mild to moderate, and short lived.”
Much of the FDA and CDC panels’ discussions focused on weighing the benefits of the vaccine against the potential risk of rare cases of myocarditis, a heart inflammation side effect. While the exact rate of myocarditis after the vaccine in 5- to 11-year-olds remains unknown, it is rare enough that zero cases turned up in the clinical trial. The CDC’s advisers concluded the risk was “likely lower” in younger children than adolescents.
Pfizer studied the vaccine’s safety in some 3,100 children who received the shots, a trial that FDA officials say is larger than most studies typically used to license other vaccines for children. Safety monitoring in more than 11 million adolescents and teens who are now fully vaccinated have also turned up no new safety issues.
“It’s a very important thing to recognize that the very low risk of myocarditis with vaccination pales in comparison to the very high risk for severe heart disease related to COVID and MIS-C,” Dr. Matthew Harris of Cohen Children’s Medical Center told CBS News.
Natural Immunity Vs Covid
The new CDC report based on research studies and some unpublished data found that immunity from infection and the COVID-19 vaccine can last for at least six months.
- But immunity from the COVID-19 vaccine is more consistent.
- The COVID-19 vaccine can also offer more antibodies for those who were previously infected with the coronavirus.
Scientists said in the CDC report research shows vaccination leads to a higher, more robust, and more consistent level of immunity to protect people from COVID-19 than infection alone.
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So Which Vaccine Is Best
While comparing vaccines can get very messy, this question has one clear answer: whatever one youre offered.
While its unclear which vaccine is most effective at stopping the spread of COVID-19 in every demographic, all the vaccines have been shown to be incredibly effective in averting serious illness and worse.
In fact, while some participants sadly died from coronavirus during trials of the Johnson & Johnson, Moderna, Oxford/AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccines, not a single one of those people were from the vaccine group.
About our experts
Dr David Matthews is a reader in virology at the University of Bristol, where he studies respiratory viruses and how they interact with other cells.
Dr Connor Bamford studies viruses, host-pathogen interactions and immune signalling at Queens University Belfast.
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Where Can I Get My Child Vaccinated
Federal health officials have encouraged Americans to check vaccines.gov to find locations near them with shots in stock. More locations will be added in the coming days as supplies are distributed around the country.
Vaccines for kids will be available at many pediatricians’ offices, as well as at children’s hospitals, rural health clinics, pharmacies, some school-based clinics and other community locations.
Almost two-thirds of parents surveyed by the CDC said they would prefer to get their child vaccinated at their regular doctor’s office.
Federal health officials have sought to recruit more of these providers to become COVID-19 vaccinators in recent weeks, though not all will be first in line to administer shots.
“The recently enrolled providers with a smaller patient base are less likely to get vaccine in this first week, when the minimum order is 300 doses. When the minimum order drops in the next week or so to 100 doses, I think some of those more newly enrolled providers would be able to get vaccine,” said Claire Hannan, executive director of the Association of Immunization Managers.
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I Have A Severe Allergy Can I Get The Mrna Covid
There have been rare cases of people having a severe allergic reaction after receiving the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. As a result, everyone getting an mRNA vaccine in the US must be observed for at least 15 minutes after getting their shot, so they can receive immediate medical treatment if they experience a severe allergic reaction.
Despite the small risk, most people with a history of severe allergy can safely get the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. This includes people who are allergic to food, pollen, bee stings, and medications taken by mouth. If you have a history of severe allergy, tell the person administering your vaccine. You will be observed for at least 30 minutes, instead of the usual 15 minutes.
If you have a history of allergic reactions to injectable medications or other vaccines, the CDC recommends asking your doctor if you should get one of the currently available mRNA vaccines.
There are some people who should not get an mRNA COVID vaccine. You should not get one if you are allergic to any components of the mRNA vaccine, which include polyethylene glycol and polysorbate. And you should not get the second dose of an mRNA vaccine if you had an allergic reaction within the first 30 minutes after receiving the first vaccine dose.
If you have questions regarding the safety of the COVID vaccine for you, your best option is to talk to your doctor.
High Efficacy Is Achieved With Full Immunization Two Weeks After The Second Dose And Was Evaluated At 941%:
As with other dna vaccines, the recipient’s cells. At the end of the vaccine study that led to emergency authorization in the us, there were eleven cases of covid19 in the vaccine group versus 185 It is approved for emergency use in india. Also presented in table s6 are efficacy estimates for.
High efficacy is achieved with full immunization, two weeks after the second dose, and was evaluated at 94.1%: Also presented in table s6 are efficacy estimates for. At the end of the vaccine study that led to emergency authorization in the us, there were eleven cases of covid19 in the vaccine group versus 185 It is approved for emergency use in india. As with other dna vaccines, the recipient’s cells.
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The Vaccine Does Not Affect Fertility Or Pregnancy
Based on all of the reassuring evidence to date, when it comes to fertility or pregnancy, there are no known safety concerns with the vaccine, said Dr. Sigal Klipstein, a reproductive endocrinologist in Chicago who is a member of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Covid-19 Task Force.
Going unvaccinated, however, could be dangerous, she added.
Women who contract Covid during pregnancy are at increased risk for more severe disease compared to women who get Covid when theyre not pregnant, she added.
According to the C.D.C., pregnant women can receive any of the three available Covid-19 vaccines, but all women younger than 50 years old regardless of whether they are pregnant should be aware of the rare but increased risk for blood clots with the Johnson & Johnson vaccine.
Fertility patients who are scheduled for procedures like egg retrieval, embryo transfer or intrauterine insemination are advised to avoid getting a Covid vaccine within three days before and three days after the procedure, according to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.
If you manage to get a vaccine appointment and you are scheduled to undergo a fertility procedure, tell your fertility doctor right away so that you can plan any surgical procedures, testing or treatment.
Fever should not interfere with implantation, Dr. Klipstein said.
Do I Still Have To Wear A Mask And Continue Covid
The CDC continues to monitor the spread of COVID-19 and makes recommendations for wearing face masks, both for those who are fully vaccinated as well as those who are not fully vaccinated.
The CDC also recommends that masks and physical distancing are required when going to the doctors office, hospitals or long-term care facilities, including all Johns Hopkins hospitals, care centers and offices.
Johns Hopkins Medicines current mask safety guidelines have not changed, and we still require all individuals to wear masks inside all of our facilities.
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What Do We Know About Johnson & Johnson’s Adenovirus Vaccine
On February 27, 2021, the FDA granted emergency use authorization for Johnson & Johnson’s single-shot adenovirus vaccine, following the recommendation from the FDA’s Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee . The vaccine is authorized for use in people 18 years and older.
In April 2021, the FDA and CDC jointly recommended pausing use of the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine until the agencies could investigate the cases of an extremely rare but serious type of blood clot that were reported in six women who received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. After examining the data and determining that the vaccines known and potential benefits outweigh its known and potential risks, the FDA and CDC recommended lifting the pause, and allowing use of the vaccine to resume.
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine was once again made available for use in the US, for anyone ages 18 and older. However, the vaccines label and factsheet will now warn of the rare risk of developing blood clots involving blood vessels in the brain, abdomen, and legs, along with low levels of blood platelets. The label and factsheet also list symptoms of TTS and urge anyone who experiences them after receiving the Johnson & Johnson vaccine to seek immediate medical attention.
Could An Mrna Vaccine Change My Dna
An mRNA vaccine the first COVID-19 vaccine to be granted emergency use authorization and then full approval by the FDA cannot change your DNA.
mRNA, or messenger RNA, is genetic material that contains instructions for making proteins. mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 contain man-made mRNA. Inside the body, the mRNA enters human cells and instructs them to produce the “spike” protein found on the surface of the COVID-19 virus. Soon after a cell makes the spike protein, the cell breaks down the mRNA into harmless pieces. At no point does the mRNA enter the cell’s nucleus, which is where our genetic material lives.
The immune system recognizes the spike protein as an invader and produces antibodies against it. If the antibodies later encounter the actual virus, they are ready to recognize and destroy it before it causes illness.
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What Are Breakthrough Infections And Why Do They Happen
A breakthrough infection is one that occurs after full vaccination.
In an article published in MMWR, the CDC reported 10,262 breakthrough infections through the end of April 2021. By that point, more than 100 million Americans had received the COVID-19 vaccine.
The vast majority of breakthrough infections were asymptomatic, mild, or moderate. About 1,000 people with breakthrough infections were hospitalized, and 160 died, though the hospitalizations and deaths were not always related to COVID-19.
These numbers tell us that the vaccines are doing a good job preventing infection and severe illness. None of the vaccines were 100% effective in clinical trials, so a small number of breakthrough infections was expected.
Who Can Get A Moderna Covid
The FDA authorized a Moderna vaccine booster for Moderna recipients age 65 years of age and older, and adults who are at high risk because of severe illness or exposure in their work setting. Additionally, all Johnson & Johnson recipients age 18 and older will also be able to get a Moderna booster two months after being vaccinated, and will be eligible for Pfizer’s booster too. Those who are eligible can get their shots now.
The CDC recommends the following people get their booster shot six months after they’ve been fully vaccinated with either Pfizer or Moderna:
- 65 years and older
- 18 or older who live in long-term care settings
- 18 or older who have underlying medical conditions
- 18 or older who work or live in high-risk settings
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An Unchartered Situation For All Of Us: From Shipping Containers To Security Concerns A Covid
Modernas must be shipped at -4 degrees Fahrenheit, which is within the temperature of a regular refrigerator freezer.
After thawing, a vial of the Pfizer vaccine must be used within five days Modernas is stable at fridge temperature for 30 days and at room temperature for 12 hours. J& Js vaccine can be stored at room temperature not to exceed 77 degrees Fahrenheit for 12 hours when the vial hasnt yet been punctured. After the first dose is withdrawn, the vial can be stored in a fridge for six hours or at room temperature for two hours.