Third Shot Vs Boosters
At this point, its mainly a difference in eligibility and timing. Third doses are recommended by the Centers for Disease Control for moderately to severely immunocompromised people four weeks after receiving their second Moderna or Pfizer vaccine. Thats because immunocompromised people sometimes dont build enough of a protective response after the first two doses, and a third dose can help with that.
Booster shots, on the other hand, are going to be recommended for everyone starting in the fall, eight months after your second dose. In the case of booster shots, its not because people havent built strong enough immunity following the first two doses. Rather, its because that immunity might wane over time.
Pfizer Vaccine Vs Moderna Vaccine: Which Should You Get
Riley has a background in international affairs and enjoys writing about health and public policy subjects. He hopes his work will provide readers with the tools to live happily.
Leann Poston, M.D.
Leann Poston, M.D.
Leann Poston, M.D. earned her medical degree from the Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine. She completed an MBA from Raj Soin College of Business, focusing on healthcare. She is a full-time medical communication writer and educator.
August 26, 2021 Read Time – 11 minutes
Doctor Explains The Difference Between Second And First Coronavirus Vaccine Dose
15:46,Â 08 January 2021 GMT| Last updatedÂ 15:46,Â 08 January 2021 GMT
A has explained what the difference between the first and second dose of the vaccine is, in an attempt to debunk some of the theories and misinformation surrounding the world’s attempts to get shut of the wretched virus.
Dr Noc, who has 395,000 followers on , where he shares his expert opinion on all things medical, explained that there is absolutely no difference between the two vaccines, it’s just a booster.
Basically, you get one shot of the vaccine, which encourages the body to start creating antibodies against the virus, then the second comes in and supercharges the process, creating more and more antibodies until you reach a decent level of immunity.
If we’re ever going to emerge from this pandemic and get back to something resembling normality, this is the kind of information we need.
The good doctor explained: “Why do some Covid vaccines require two doses, and what is in that second dose?
“The second does is just a booster shot, it’s exactly the same thing as what was in the first dose, same vial, there’s no difference.
“So, the first dose, it starts your immune system making those antibodies and those T cells after about 10 to 14 days, they can help fight off the virus.
“Not all vaccines require two doses, not even all Covid vaccines require two doses.”
It joins the Pfizer/BioNTect and Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccines in being cleared for use on the UK’s population.
Which Vaccines Has The Uk Ordered
The UK has ordered vaccines from:
The Pfizer, Oxford/AstraZeneca and Moderna vaccines are currently in use in the UK, and the government announced on May 28 that 20 million doses of J&J have now been ordered. Additionally, Novavax has published phase three data and looks set to be approved soon. The GSK/Sanofi and Valneva jabs are still in development.
Herd Immunity: An Explanation
Before the COVID-19 pandemic, the term herd immunity was possibly something you only heard about during flu season or during reports of upticks in measles casesif at all.
But COVID-19 has brought that conceptwhen an infectious disease is less likely to spread because enough people have immunity either through exposure or vaccinationto the front of our minds. Now that we have effective coronavirus vaccines, many are wondering if and when we will reach herd immunity with COVID-19.
Manisha Juthani, MD, and other Yale experts explain herd immunity, why it matters, and what needs to happen to get there.
Why Would We Ever Go Back: Covid
For now, the vaccines will continue to be used primarily in two groups most at risk of getting infected or developing severe disease: health care providers and residents and staff of long-term care facilities. Modernas vaccine was authorized for individuals 18 and older, while the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine was authorized for individuals 16 and older.
In clinical trials, Modernas vaccine was 94% effective in decreasing symptomatic Covid-19 infections, while also preventing more severe forms of the disease. Its effectiveness was roughly in line with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine.
The vaccine caused side effects including pain at the injection site, tiredness, headache, muscle pain, chills, joint pain, swollen lymph nodes in the same arm as the injection, nausea and vomiting, and fever. Side effects typically lasted several days.
Marks said that the side effect profiles of the two vaccines are reasonably similar and that he did not expect side effects to slow the use of the Moderna vaccine.
I think that ultimately, if these are managed well, if we communicate the expectations well, I think particularly among those who are eager to get back to a normal life, which I think that includes many of us, there will be reasonable uptake of this and well continue to communicate about these side effects to help people be prepared to know what to expect, he said.
Helen Branswell contributed reporting.
This story has been updated with details from an FDA media briefing.
Is The Coronavirus Vaccine Safe
Yes, the coronavirus vaccine is safe. Severe allergic reactions called anaphylaxis rarely occur and can be treated.
On April 13, 2021, the FDA and CDC called for a pause in the usage of the Johnson and Johnson vaccine, due to reports of rare blood clots among people who have received the vaccine in the U.S. The pause on the Johnson and Johnson vaccine was lifted on April 23, 2021, by federal health officials.
In about 12.6 cases per million second doses administered, young adults have inflammation of the heart muscle or the outer lining of the heart. In most cases, the inflammation gets better on its own. This important side effect prompted the FDA to place a warning label on both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines.
The FDA has placed two warning labels on the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. One was placed after rare cases of the neurological disorder Guillain-Barre Ì syndrome was reported in a small number of people. The second warning was added, after an investigation, to warn about a potentially serious blood clotting disorder that also occurred in a small number of recipients.
Every medication and vaccination has side effects. Ideally, every vaccine and every medication would be 100% effective and 100% safe. This is an impossible goal because we are all different. Our genetic differences determine how we metabolize medications and react to infections.
The Johnson & Johnson Vaccine And Blood Clots: What You Need To Know
In the minds of many, the halt of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine in April delivered doubt just as the mass COVID-19 vaccinations were making progress. There are three vaccines authorized for use in the United States, but Johnson & Johnsons was a particularly important one, partly because its one-shot dose made it seem as though we might achieve herd immunity faster. Then, the government recommended pausing the companys vaccine after six women who received it developed rare blood clotsand one woman died.
We spoke to Yale Medicine infectious diseases expert Jaimie Meyer, MD, MS, and Yale Medicine hematologist Robert Bona, MDthey shared insights about the pause and answered commonly asked questions.
Why Do The Pfizer And Moderna Vaccines Require Two Doses
B cells are the first to form after a vaccine is given, and their job is to make antibodies in the first few weeks. However, the amount of antibodies in your body may start to go down quickly if you dont get your second dose.
But once your body sees the spike protein again from your second shot, your immune system recognizes it from the first time and is able to make more T cells targeted immune cells that last longer and mature B cells, which make even stronger antibodies. This means better and longer protection against the coronavirus.
You may be wondering if one shot will give you enough protection if youre partially vaccinated. However, there are still a lot of unknowns about how long youll be protected if you skip your second shot, so its still recommended to get both.
How To Tell The Difference Between Covid
April 28, 2021
The after effects of your COVID jab can be very similar to COVID-19 symptoms. Hereâs how to tell the difference and know when to get a test.Â Â
- How will I feel after my vaccine?
- Will I experience vaccine after effects?
- How do I know whether I have vaccine after effects or COVID-19?
- Help us understand the effects and impact of COVID-19 vaccines by logging your jab
As of the beginning of April, tens of millions of people in the UK have received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine.Â
Confusingly, the after effects of vaccination can feel a lot like some of the symptoms of COVID-19, making it hard to know whether youâre experiencing a response to the vaccine or have caught the virusÂ and should self-isolate and get tested.
Itâs important to remember that you can still catch COVID-19 after being vaccinated, particularly in the first couple of weeks after your jab, as it takes time for your immunity to build up and no vaccine provides 100% protection.Â
So itâs important to be alert to any signs that you may be infected, to help protect both yourself and the people around you.
How Effective Are The Vaccines Against The Variants
Two doses of a coronavirus vaccine seem to be effective against the Indian variant, Matt Hancock confirmed on May 27. Dr Jenny Harries added that “we are seeing very, very strong vaccine effectiveness after the second dose”, with Pfizer around 80-90 per cent effective.
While AstraZeneca has lower effectiveness against the dominant variant, the Indian strain, early data reveals AstraZeneca vaccine immunisation improving after the second dose.
At the moment, it is important to point out that all of the vaccines continue to provide adequate protection against severe illness and death caused by all of the “variants of concern” – the so-called Kent variant , the South African variant , the Brazilian variant and the new Indian variant .
In some cases, the effectiveness of the vaccines against the variants is reduced, but they do still work; experts say it is better to think of immunity as a sliding scale, rather than an on/off switch. Moreover, even if the vaccines only offer, say, 50 per cent protection against the variants, that is better than nothing.
Some manufacturers have also created “tweaked” jabs. The Moderna vaccine, the first to be tested, has been shown to be effective against the Covid-19 variants.
Second-generation vaccines are also currently in development, with UK and German firms GSK and Curevac collaborating on a multi-valent vaccine that can be used against several strains.
So How Do Vaccines Actually Work
Basically, vaccines train the immune system to recognize dangerous pathogens, like SARS-CoV-2, allowing the body to fight an infection without having to get sick.
The immune system is like an orchestra. It has so many different players and instruments that need to work together to defend the body against invading pathogens, says Akiko Iwasaki, PhD, Waldemar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Immunobiology and Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology at Yale School of Medicine. The vaccine serves as the conductor to orchestrate the defense system.
How does this happen? When a pathogen infects the body, the immune system dispatches an army of different cells to clear the infection from the body. Two types of immune cells that make up this armyB cells and T cellsare particularly important for the development of vaccines.
What About Early Reports Of Allergic Reactions
In a few rare cases, people have experienced severe allergic reactions to the vaccines, says Dr. Levy, who serves on the FDA vaccine advisory committee that reviewed the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines. We are continuing to collect data so we can understand these reactions and what causes them, he says.
In the meantime, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that anyone who gets vaccinated remain at the facility for 15 to 30 minutes so health care workers can watch for signs of an allergic reaction and provide prompt treatment if necessary.
How Do The Side Effects Compare
When it comes to new vaccines, the issue of safety is understandably on everyones minds.
The question how safe is this vaccine? can be translated as what is the risk of developing side effects from this vaccine? And, in answering this query, it is important to note there is no drug not even the most common painkiller that is entirely free from side effects.
Scientists have broken down the side effects that they expect to occur with the BioNTech vaccine currently the only one with approval for use in the U.K. and the U.S. into very common, common, and uncommon.
Very common side effects, which may affect more than 1 in 10 people, include:
- pain at the injection site
that everyone take the flu vaccine, except for children younger than 6 months of age or those with severe allergies to the flu vaccine or any ingredient in the vaccine.
Some studies have found a slight risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after flu vaccination, while other studies found no association. For those that did find such a likelihood, this risk was 12 in 1,000,000 people.
For MMR, the listed as common by the CDC are:
- sore arm from the shot
- mild rash
- temporary pain and stiffness in the joints
Rarely, the vaccine may trigger febrile seizures, swelling in the cheeks or neck, or a temporary low platelet count in the blood. However, none of these are life threatening or have long-term effects.
Why More Than One Shot More Than One Dose Helps Your Immune System Figure Out How To Stop A Future Covid
The vaccine material breaks down shortly after its taken into our cells and does not impact our genes. This vaccine is new but RNA vaccines are not. They have been studied for several years and used against influenza, Ebola and the Zika virus.
This vaccine needs to be stored in extremely cold temperatures, between -112 degrees Fahrenheit and -76 degrees Fahrenheit, until its ready for use. This ensures the vaccine remains stable. The first vaccine acquired by Yale New Haven Health was the Pfizer vaccine and we have the necessary storage to keep it at the appropriate temperatures.
The Pfizer vaccine is about 53% effective after the first dose and 95% effective after the second dose, which is why its so important for all recipients to take both doses. The third dose brings up the recipient’s level of immunity.
Common side effects include pain at the injection site, fever, fatigue, muscle pain and joint pain. Some of those mild side effects can occur after getting the flu shot.
How Many Doses Is Canada Getting
- Pfizer: 40 million doses
- Moderna: 40 million doses
- AstraZeneca: 20 million doses
Out of the three approved vaccines, individual Canadians are most likely to wind up receiving the Moderna vaccine. Canadas agreement with Moderna is for 40 million doses although the feds have the option of purchasing another 16 million in addition to that. The 40 million doses are enough to inoculate 20 million Canadians, over half of the population.
Meanwhile, Canada has 40 million Pfizer doses secured in its agreement with the manufacturer. Thats enough to inoculate another 20 million Canadians, which means that between Pfizer and Moderna alone, Canada has enough doses to vaccine every Canadian and then some.
As for the agreement with AstraZeneca, Canada has purchased 20 million doses enough to vaccine another 10 million Canadians. That means that between the three agreements, Canada has enough doses to inoculate 40 million people, which is more than the entire population, within the year.
Should Canada opt to purchase more of any of the vaccines, theres no guarantee theyd arrive any faster than the initial 80 million doses. Any additional doses would be entirely dependent on the manufacturers production capacity, which is under serious strain as every country battles to get the vaccines.
Either way, Canadas current vaccine agreements point in an optimistic direction: every Canadian who wants a vaccine should be able to access one in 2021.
Why Are There So Many Covid
COVID-19 is a global health emergency, explains Dr. Ofer Levy, director of the Precision Vaccines Program. Throughout this past year, laboratories around the world went to work to develop COVID-19 vaccines and test their safety and effectiveness. We didnt know which vaccines would work at the start of this pandemic. If we tested them one at a time, it could have taken decades to find a vaccine that worked.
The first vaccine to receive authorization in the U.S., developed by the drug company Pfizer, was 95 percent effective in preventing mild to moderate COVID-19 disease in clinical trials. The second vaccine, developed by Moderna, was 94.5 percent effective. While no one could have predicted the first vaccines would work so well, having several in production at once means more people can be vaccinated more quickly.
What Are B Cells And T Cells
B cells and T cells move through the body, constantly on the lookout for pathogens. When they encounter one, they attach themselves to it via a structure on the pathogens surface called an antigen. When B cells bind to antigens, they crank out thousands of antibodies, which in turn bind to other pathogens circulating in the blood and lymphatic fluid. These antibodies send chemical signals to other immune cells to come and help destroy the pathogen.
But what happens if a virus infects the cells? This is where T cells come in: A special type of T cell monitors the bodys cells. Should these killer T cells detect an infected cell, they kill it in order to prevent the infection from spreading to other cells.
After ridding the body of a pathogen, some B and T cells live on as memory cells. These memory cells can live for yearseven decadespreserving their knowledge of these pathogens. If the immune system sees them again, the memory cells will recognize them and launch a swift and powerful immune response that kills the pathogens before they can cause sickness.
Because this is complicated, its worth reiterating: It is the ability of memory cells to remember pathogens that confers immunity and protection against viral and bacterial pathogens they have previously confronted. Vaccines use this immunological memory.
If You Value Our Coronavirus Coverage Please Consider Making A One
But since the J&J vaccines arrival on the scene there have been a number of challenges. A production snafu in the hands of a contract production company contaminated 15 million doses, which had to be destroyed. And in mid-April, the FDA and CDC recommended states pause use of the vaccine as they investigate whether the vaccine triggers a rare but serious side effect the development of diffuse blood clots, even though the few individuals who developed the condition had low platelet levels.
What follows is a head-to-head comparison of the vaccines developed by Pfizer and BioNTech, by , and by J&J. This article will be updated as developments occur.
An Unchartered Situation For All Of Us: From Shipping Containers To Security Concerns A Covid
Modernas must be shipped at -4 degrees Fahrenheit, which is within the temperature of a regular refrigerator freezer.
After thawing, a vial of the Pfizer vaccine must be used within five days; Modernas is stable at fridge temperature for 30 days and at room temperature for 12 hours. J&Js vaccine can be stored at room temperature not to exceed 77 degrees Fahrenheit for 12 hours when the vial hasnt yet been punctured. After the first dose is withdrawn, the vial can be stored in a fridge for six hours or at room temperature for two hours.
Who Can Take The Covid
- Pfizer: 16+
- Moderna: 18+
- AstraZeneca: 18+
While Canada is on track to have tens of millions of doses available to Canadians this year, not everyone who may want the vaccine will be able to take it.
Pfizers clinical trials were only conducted on those over the age of 16, which means that until further studies are completed in younger age groups, anyone under 16 years old is ineligible for the jab. The same issue comes into play for both Moderna and AstraZeneca, which only conducted their clinical trials on Canadians over the age of 18.
Moderna is currently conducting additional studies in children over 12 years old, so teens may be able to access the jabs once that work is done.
However, age isnt the only limitation those hoping to be vaccinated may face. Anyone who is allergic to the ingredients in the vaccines is not allowed to receive the injections, and pregnant or breastfeeding mothers have been asked to consult their doctors before moving ahead with their vaccinations.
Finally, if you have COVID-19, you cant get the vaccine until youre better.
How Are Vaccines Approved
Before a vaccine can be used on the general population, it must first be carefully tested and vetted in an approval process intended to ensure that it is both safe and effective.
Here in the United States, this process begins with whats called preclinical research. This is when the vaccine is first tested on cell cultures and animalsnot humansto determine whether it safely produces the desired immune response.
If a vaccine passes the preclinical stage, it begins a three-phase trial.
- Phase 1: During Phase 1, the vaccine is given to a small group of healthy volunteers . This phase of the trial is focused on evaluating whether the vaccine is safe, though researchers also study its efficacy by determining whether it triggers an immune response.
- Phase 2: Vaccines that prove safe in Phase 1 move on to Phase 2. Here, hundreds of volunteers receive the vaccine. During Phase 2, researchers continue to assess the safety of the vaccine, though they also try to understand how the immune system responds to different doses of it.
- Phase 3: Phase 3 occurs after a vaccine successfully passes Phase 2. During this phase, thousands or even tens of thousands of volunteers receive either the vaccine or a placebo, but neither the researchers nor the volunteers know who gets which treatment.
Will I Experience Vaccine After Effects
Itâs normal not to feel quite right in the first few days after your vaccine. A third of people who have the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine experience at least one systemic effect, while roughly one in eight experience systemic effects after having the first dose of the Pfizer jab.
Youâre more likely to experience side effects after their first vaccine dose if youâve previously had COVID-19. Youâre also slightly more likely to report systemic and local effects after the second dose of the Pfizer jab compared with the first. You can find out more about the specific after effects of the and Oxford AstraZeneca vaccines on our blog, and watch our expert webinar to discover how they affect different people.
How Do I Know Whether I Have Vaccine After Effects Or Covid
Systemic effects following a vaccine can feel a lot like COVID-19 symptoms. However, there are some key differences.Â
- Vaccine after effects usually only last for a short period of time, and disappear within a day or two. If youâre still feeling unwell several days after your jab, you should self isolate and get a test to check whether you have COVID-19.Â
- Loss of smell and persistent cough are not vaccine after effects, but are two of the most common signs of COVID-19. If you develop either of these symptoms itâs important to self isolate and get a test as soon as possible.Â Â
If youâre using the ZOE COVID Symptom Study app to log daily health reports after being vaccinated, you won’t be offered a test if symptoms that could be related to your jab only occur in the first three days.Â
If your symptoms persist for four or more days, or if youâre reporting symptoms that are unrelated to your vaccine but could be COVID-19, you will be offered a PCR test through the app. We recommend taking a test if youâre offered it.Â
As lockdown eases, itâs still important to get tested if youâre worried you have COVID-19 to help protect the people around you and the wider community.