Amazon Established A Foothold In Diagnostics During Covid
There have been reports of severe allergic reactions to the mRNA vaccines. Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines appear, on rare occasions, to trigger anaphylaxis, a severe and potentially life-threatening reaction. People who develop anaphylaxis must be treated with epinephrine the drug in EpiPens and may need to be hospitalized to ensure their airways remain open. The CDC says people should be monitored for 15 minutes after getting a Covid-19 shot, and 30 minutes if they have a history of severe allergies. J& J recently revealed that a single case of anaphylaxis has been reported in someone who received its vaccine.
It will take time to come up with a firm estimate of how frequently this side effect occurs. The most recent data from the CDC suggest that anaphylaxis occurs at a rate of about 2.5 cases per one million doses given of the Moderna vaccine, and 4.7 cases per million doses of the Pfizer. Many of the people who have developed anaphylaxis have a history of severe allergies and some have had previous episodes of anaphylaxis.
The mRNA vaccines carry a small risk of myocarditis and pericarditis, two types of heart inflammation that are most commonly seen soon after people receive their second shots, health officials have said. Men under 40 seem to be at highest risk, particularly those aged 12 to 17. Most cases reported have been mild and resolved.
These Vaccines Are Safe Right
If it has emergency use authorization from the FDA, it has been held to a very high safety standard. These vaccine trials have had just massive amounts of patients. There have been at least 30,000 patients in each one of these trials, and Johnson & Johnsons had 43,000 people. There were no harm signals in the Johnson & Johnson trials.
We have a few reports of possible severe adverse effects from the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines. Reports of severe adverse effects are being monitored and investigated closely. We still have to collect long-term safety data. For any immediate issues, those are usually collected in the vaccine trials. We have months of data now that show the vaccines are safe.
What Kind Of Vaccine Is The Flu Vaccine
Since we are in the midst of flu season , you may also be wondering where the flu vaccine falls in all this. The shot version uses an inactivated virus or single protein from the flu virus, and essentially does the same thing as the Covid-19 vaccines mentioned above: It introduces your body to parts of different flu viruses. This puts your immune system on the defensive to help rid your body of this foreign substance. Antibodies are made, and then offer protection down the line. The tricky thing about the flu vaccines effectiveness is that it is going to vary from season to season because there are different types or the virus that circulate each year. So medical experts never know exactly which will hit us and often are making highly-educated guesstimations.
The most important takeaway from all of this? Protection against the Covid-19 is key. All of these types of vaccines are just different routes to get your body to protect you.
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Who Can Take The Covid
- Pfizer: 16+
- Moderna: 18+
- AstraZeneca: 18+
While Canada is on track to have tens of millions of doses available to Canadians this year, not everyone who may want the vaccine will be able to take it.
Pfizers clinical trials were only conducted on those over the age of 16, which means that until further studies are completed in younger age groups, anyone under 16 years old is ineligible for the jab. The same issue comes into play for both Moderna and AstraZeneca, which only conducted their clinical trials on Canadians over the age of 18.
Moderna is currently conducting additional studies in children over 12 years old, so teens may be able to access the jabs once that work is done.
However, age isnt the only limitation those hoping to be vaccinated may face. Anyone who is allergic to the ingredients in the vaccines is not allowed to receive the injections, and pregnant or breastfeeding mothers have been asked to consult their doctors before moving ahead with their vaccinations.
Finally, if you have COVID-19, you cant get the vaccine until youre better.
What Is The Difference Between How The Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Works And How The Pfizer And Moderna Vaccines Work
The ultimate difference is the way the instructions are delivered. The Moderna and Pfizer vaccines use mRNA technology, and the Johnson & Johnson vaccine uses the more traditional virus-based technology.
mRNA is essentially a little piece of code that the vaccine delivers to your cells. The code serves as an instruction manual for your immune system, teaching it to recognize the virus that causes COVID-19 and attack it, should it encounter the real thing.
Instead of using mRNA, the Johnson & Johnson vaccine uses a disabled adenovirus to deliver the instructions. This adenovirus is in no way related to the coronavirus. It is a completely different virus. Although it can deliver the instructions on how to defeat the coronavirus, it cant replicate in your body and will not give you a viral infection.
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With Painstaking Effort Black Doctors Group Takes Aim At Covid
All 10 of the people who developed anaphylaxis were given epinephrine, the drug in EpiPens that is used to combat severe allergic reactions. The CDC has said that those administering Covid vaccines need to be equipped to treat anaphylaxis, including having epinephrine injections on hand.
Anaphylaxis occurred quickly in the people affected, with the median time to the start of symptoms being 7.5 minutes. People who receive Covid-19 vaccines are supposed to be monitored for 15 minutes after the injection, with that period extended to 30 minutes for people with a history of severe allergies or anaphylaxis.
Nine of the 10 people had a history of allergies and five of them had previously experienced an anaphylactic reaction.
This story has been updated with additional data and comment from the CDC.
Are There Benefits To The Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Based On Its Technology
Absolutely. The huge advantage to the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is that it is a single shot. The mRNA vaccine requires two.
As well, the Johnson & Johnson vaccine can be kept at essentially refrigerator temperatures for months, and its stable. The mRNA vaccines arent as stable and require super cold storage temperatures. Once theyre out of cold storage, you only have a small window of time to administer them.
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is much more like a regular vaccine and is much easier to distribute and maintain. That has huge implications for rural areas of the country. Those areas might not have the ability to keep the mRNA vaccines at super cold temperatures.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis
CVST can cause a number of symptoms including:
- Nausea, vomiting
- Weakness or impaired control of one side of the body, both sides of the body, or one leg or one arm
- Difficulty speaking
- Blurred or double vision brief periods in which vision becomes gray or black
A patient may experience one or several of these symptoms. While symptoms may appear suddenly, in general they develop over the course of a week or longer. In about a third of cases, headache is the only symptom.
Can Those Whove Gotten The Vaccine Still Transmit The Virus
We dont know, but you have to figure if someone has less virus, they might not transmit it as effectively. This could slow down the number of additional cases. That is really the idea with a vaccine, but nobody knows that for sure. That is the hope.
There will still be people who get sick, especially since there are so many cases. People are still going to need to wear masks and socially distance. Its not a passport to go back to normal living. If you are, in theory, one of the 5% who got the Pfizer vaccine and still got COVID-19, you could still transmit the virus to people, and they could get super sick.
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What Makes Yale Medicines Approach To Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Unique
While headache is seen in most patients with CVST, it is also a very common symptom seen in many disorders. Clinicians at Yale Medicine are trained to have a high index of suspicion for CVST in the appropriate clinical circumstance , says Dr. Bona. This training is especially important as early diagnosis with early treatment will result in better long-term outcomes.
Data Emerge Showing More Differences Between Covid Vaccines
Recent data suggests that Moderna’s coronavirus vaccine may maintain a higher effectiveness over time than Pfizer’s.
Why it matters: The effectiveness gap could always disappear with more data, and both vaccines remain very effective against severe disease. But if the gap does hold up, it raises questions about whether the two vaccines should be treated the same way policy-wise.
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Driving the news: Several studies both preprints and those that have been peer-reviewed have found a difference between the two vaccines’ effectiveness over time, although some experts have cautioned that this could stem from flawed head-to-head comparisons.
The studies have evaluated different measures of effectiveness, but all have found that effectiveness against severe disease remains relatively high.
“There have been sort of signals from enough separate sources that start to paint a picture that may reflect a real biological phenomenon a real difference. Im starting to believe that theres something underlying it,” said Natalie Dean, an Emery professor who specializes in vaccine study design.
Zoom in: In a study released last week, the CDC found that Moderna was significantly more effective against hospitalizations and emergency department or urgent care encounters than the Pfizer or J& J vaccines.
And, while the vaccines are both made using mRNA technology, they have structural differences.
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What This Means For You
The three available vaccines against Covid-19 offer excellent protection against the virus and there is no reason to choose one over the others.
The information in this article is current as of the date listed, which means newer information may be available when you read this. For the most recent updates on COVID-19, visit our coronavirus news page.
How Many Doses Of Each Covid
- Pfizer: two
- Moderna: two
- AstraZeneca: two
Pfizer, Moderna and AstraZenecas vaccines are all two-dose shots leaving little room for relief for those Canadians who get sweaty palms at the very thought of needles.
Some, including the head of Ontarios vaccine rollout Gen. Rick Hillier, have pushed for Moderna to be approved as a single-dose vaccine, as the jab has proven to be about 80 per cent effective after the first injection.
However, no clinical trials have been conducted to prove whether that inoculation lasts long-term and Moderna hasnt shown any interest in conducting further trials to determine if less effective, one-time vaccine is a safe and effective option.
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Is One Type Of Vaccine Better
The viral vector-based COVID-19 vaccines developed by AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson have been linked to an extremely rare and potentially life-threatening blood-clotting syndrome called vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia which is the combination of low platelet counts with blood clots.
The risk for developing this syndrome is estimated to be anywhere from one case in 100,000 doses to one case in 250,000.
In Canada, there have been only seven reported VITT cases in all of the approximately 1.7 million doses of AstraZeneca that have been administered in the country so far.
Due to the extremely low risk of developing VITT after vaccination with a viral vector-based vaccine, however, NACI recently reaffirmed that the mRNA vaccines are preferred over the other ones and that it might be in the best interest of some Canadians who have a low risk of exposure to COVID-19 to wait for an mRNA dose.
Despite this guidance, both Health Canada and NACI have emphasized that the vaccines by AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson are safe and effective for the majority of the population and there could be far worse consequences of contracting COVID-19.
What Is The Outlook For People With Guillain
The symptoms of GBS usually become most severe within four weeks of symptom onset, and then plateau. The majority of people recover, though the process may take weeks, months, or even years. Fortunately, most people who develop GBS are eventually able to return to their usual everyday and work-related activities without any significant residual physical impairment.
In some cases, even after recovery people may continue to experience weakness, pain, or fatigue, and require ongoing care. GBS is usually a once in a life-time occurrence, but a small number of people may experience a relapse.
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Can I Choose Which Vaccine I Get
We arent there yet. That wont be possible in the short term. I would say get what you can get when something becomes available to you. I really dont think people should wait. If you have access to get any vaccine, you should get it. Even if it doesnt completely prevent it, you are much less likely to have severe disease and die. Maybe youre just at home and feel terrible as opposed to having to be admitted to the hospital with low oxygen. Hospitals and clinics are going to be limited in the short term on what they can provide folks.
How Is Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Diagnosed
To diagnose CVST, doctors collect a medical history, perform a physical exam, and order imaging studies and bloodwork.
The doctor will gather information about the medical history, including what symptoms are present, when they began, whether symptoms have worsened in recent days, and whether there are any underlying medical conditions associated with CVST.
During the physical exam, the doctor will evaluate the patient for signs and symptoms associated with CVST.
Imaging studies are essential to diagnosis of CVST. The most commonly used imaging tests for CVST are magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. The doctor may also order a magnetic resonance venogram or CT venogram of the brain. These are special types of scans that are used to visualize the veins and venous sinuses, which are the structures involved in CVST. In some cases, doctors may recommend another type of imaging study called an angiogram. This test produces an image of the blood vessels in the brain.
A diagnosis of CVST may also require blood tests to evaluate potential underlying causes. In some cases, the doctor will perform a lumbar puncture to collect cerebrospinal fluid for testing.
How Are The Vaccines Different
One important difference has to do with how the vaccines are stored. The Pfizer vaccine requires special freezers that can maintain a temperature of negative 94o F. The Moderna vaccine needs to be frozen at negative 20o F, roughly the same temperature as a standard home freezer. Most of the other vaccines currently in clinical trials are stable at 40o F, standard refrigeration.
Some large institutions, like Boston Childrens, have deep freezers cold enough to store the Pfizer vaccine. Other vaccines will be more practical in many smaller practices and rural communities.
What If I Received The Moderna Or Johnson And Johnson Vaccines
Recipients of the Moderna or Johnson and Johnson vaccines are not able to receive a booster dose as federal health officials dont recommend those individuals take the dose from Pfizer. However, its anticipated a recommendation for those vaccines will come in the near future.
Federal officials are reviewing data submitted by Moderna this past month.
Manufacturers of the Johnson and Johnson vaccine also plan to submit their data for approval of its booster dose in the coming days, the New York Times reported this week.
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How Are These Vaccines Similar
All of the vaccines developed in response to the pandemic were initially studied using adult participants, although studies have since expanded. The Pfizer vaccine is approved for recipients 12 and older. The Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines are for those 18 and older. Researchers are looking to see if the vaccines are safe for patients as young as 6 months old.
Any time a vaccine is approved for emergency use, they will continue to be studied and monitored for safety by the FDA. It’s important to note that all of the vaccines approved by the FDA help to protect against severe cases of COVID-19 and death. If patients are eligible to get a vaccine appointment, Yale New Haven Health does not recommend waiting for access to one particular vaccine based on their efficacy. The best way to protect yourself is to get vaccinated, regardless of the manufacturer.
Q: Can You Speak To How The Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Fits Into All Of This That Was A One
Even when Johnson & Johnson was being developed, there was already thought around, Does it really need to be just one dose? Or do we need to think about two doses? Given the considerations that weve seen for the messenger RNA vaccines, Johnson & Johnson is, at the moment, reviewing the data and pursuing a study around what it will mean to have two doses, and how much more effective that will be compared to the single dose. I think that data is forthcoming. We have heard that theyre going to submit that type of information to the FDA, and Im sure the CDC will review it in the next few months.
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