If You’re Fully Vaccinated
Individuals who have received both doses of an FDA-authorized COVID-19 vaccine are not required to quarantine following exposure to someone with COVID-19 as long as:
- they remain asymptomatic
- are beyond two weeks following the receipt of their second vaccine
They are expected to wear a mask for 14 days or until a negative test result is received after testing on day 3-5 after last exposure.
Instructions For Your Household Members
The people you live with should also stay home during your 10-day self-isolation period, except for essential reasons such as picking up groceries or prescriptions unless they are fully vaccinated or previously positive.
During this time:
- Household members should work from home if possible.
- Children who are not fully vaccinated or previously positive must stay home from school or child care for the duration of the close contactâs self-isolation period. These children must not gather with individuals outside their household who are not fully vaccinated or who are not previously positive. Learn more about what to do if you have a child attending school or going to child care.
- If anyone at home develops symptoms or tests positive for COVID-19, everybody in the home that isnt fully vaccinated or previously positive, must self-isolate. Do not go to child care, school or work. The person that has symptoms of COVID-19, must isolate and get tested even if they are fully vaccinated or previously positive.
- If youre fully vaccinated or previously positive and do not have any symptoms of COVID-19, the people you live with do not need to stay at home.
If the people you live with are fully vaccinated or previously positive and do not have any symptoms, they do not need to stay home.
Technical Considerations On Testing And Post
Mathematical models have provided some insights into potential effects of testing and various quarantine periods. CDC modeling suggests that, when combined with post-arrival testing and self-monitoring for symptoms of COVID-19 , the period of staying home or in a comparable location such as a hotel can be shortened without substantially increasing the risk of introducing additional cases of COVID-19 to the destination community.1
The optimal post-arrival test timing and reduction in risk of introducing additional cases of COVID-19 at destination vary depending on what other measures are taken. The scenarios below assume all travelers self-monitor for symptoms of COVID-19 and self-isolate if symptoms develop.
Stay-at-home Period with or without Post-arrival Testing
- A CDC modeling study examined several combinations of 7 or 14-day post-travel self-quarantine, pre-travel testing, and post-arrival testing and their potential effect on post-travel transmission risk.1
- Considerations such as the likelihood of compliance, and burden of mitigation measures on the individual are also important to account for in developing recommendations and policies aimed to reduce travel-related COVID-19 spread.
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When To End Quarantine
You can end quarantine 14 days after your last close contact with a person who has COVID-19.
Even if you get tested for COVID-19, have no symptoms, and have a negative test, you should remain in quarantine for the entire 14 days. COVID-19 symptoms can appear anywhere from 2 to 14 days after exposure.
If, during your quarantine, you have close contact with a person with COVID-19, you need to begin your quarantine over from day 1 and remain there until 14 days have passed with no contact.
If you are caring for someone with COVID-19 and can’t avoid close contact, you can end your quarantine 14 days after that person has been able to end home isolation.
Advice For Education Facilities
Education facilities are schools, school boarding houses, childcare, early childhood education and care, and higher education.
If someone who tested positive went to an education facility while they were infectious, the case or a parent/guardian is required to tell the school or centre.
The education facility must identify and inform the other staff and students who the case came into contact with while they were infectious.
These contacts are required to isolate, get a standard test at a testing centre, and stay isolated until they return a negative result, and show you evidence of that result before they return.
There may be other steps you should follow, including the recommended use of rapid antigen self-tests before entering sensitive settings. These tests will be provided free-of-charge to contacts at testing centres.
See more information for education facilities below.
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Can People Infect Pets With The Covid
The virus that causes COVID-19 does appear to spread from people to pets, according to the FDA, though this is uncommon. Research has found that cats and ferrets are more likely to become infected than dogs.
If you have a pet, do the following to reduce their risk of infection:
- Avoid letting pets interact with people or animals that do not live in your household.
- Keep cats indoors when possible to prevent them from interacting with other animals or people.
- Walk dogs on a leash maintaining at least six feet from other people and animals.
- Avoid dog parks or public places where a large number of people and dogs gather.
If you become sick with COVID-19, restrict contact with your pets, just like you would around other people. This means you should forgo petting, snuggling, being kissed or licked, and sharing food or bedding with your pet until you are feeling better. When possible, have another member of your household care for your pets while you are sick. If you must care for your pet while you are sick, wash your hands before and after you interact with your pets and wear a face mask.
At present, it is considered unlikely that pets can spread the COVID-19 virus to humans. However, pets can spread other infections that cause illness, including E. coli and Salmonella, so wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after interacting with your animal companions.
How Do Saliva Tests Compare To Nasal Swab Tests For Diagnosing Covid
Samples for COVID-19 tests may be collected through a long swab that is inserted into the nose and sometimes down to the throat, or from a saliva sample.
The saliva test is easier to perform spitting into a cup versus submitting to a swab and more comfortable. Because a person can independently spit into a cup, the saliva test does not require interaction with a healthcare worker. This cuts down on the need for masks, gowns, gloves, and other protective equipment.
Either saliva or swab samples may be used for PCR tests, which detect genetic material from the coronavirus. Swab or saliva samples can also be used for antigen tests, which detect specific proteins on the surface of the coronavirus.
A systematic review and meta-analysis published in JAMA Internal Medicine found that saliva- and nasal swab-based tests that used a technique similar to PCR were similarly accurate. A positive result on either test meant that it was accurate at diagnosing the infection 99% of the time. However, approximately 16 out of 100 people who are infected will be missed.
These results are very similar to prior studies, reinforcing that a single negative swab or saliva test does not mean you dont have COVID. If you have symptoms suggestive of COVID, presume you may still be infected to avoid transmitting the virus to others.
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What Are The Omicron Symptoms
They are said to differ from the classic Covid symptoms of fever, new and persistent cough and a loss or change of smell or taste.
Professor Tim Spector, the scientist behind the Zoe symptom tracker app, has told the BBC that many of the symptoms of Omicron were the same as those of the common cold and include headaches, sore throat, runny nose, fatigue and sneezing.
He added that people with cold symptoms and not just the classic Covid symptoms should take a Covid test.
People who have received two doses of the Covid vaccine may present with less severe symptoms, such as headache, runny nose, sneezing, sore throat, and loss of smell according to Christina Marriott, chief executive of the Royal Society for Public Health .
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US public health agency also noted that congestion was another common symptom according to data they had analysed.
Dr Angelique Coetzee, the South African doctor who first raised the alarm over the new variant had described the symptoms as extremely mild.
Moving Toward A Better Definition Of Long Haulers And A New Name
Very different chronic illnesses may develop in some people who have had COVID-19. So, the National Institutes of Health has proposed a unifying name: post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, or PASC.
Most people who get COVID-19 recover within weeks or a few months. However, some will likely suffer chronic damage to their lungs, heart, kidneys or brain that the virus inflicted. Others will develop long COVID.
We do not yet have a formal definition of long COVID. In my opinion, such a definition should include these three points:
- A medical diagnosis of COVID-19, based on both symptoms and/or diagnostic testing for the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus
- Not having returned to pre-COVID-19 level of health and function after six months
- Having symptoms that suggest long COVID, but no evidence of permanent damage to the lungs, heart, and kidneys that could cause those symptoms.
Is long COVID the same as chronic fatigue syndrome ?
Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, has speculated that long COVID likely is the same as or very similar to myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome .
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If You’re A Close Contact Of Someone With Covid
We recommend the general public quarantine for 14 days from their last contact with an infected person. This option is the safest for everyone. However, a growing body of data shows that the risk of illness is greatly reduced between days 11-14. Therefore, your quarantine can end after 10 days if:
To be clear, there is still a risk of developing an illness between days 11-14 it is simply lower than the first 10 days.
- Stay home except to get medical care.
- Get tested if you develop symptoms.
- Remember: you cannot test your way out of quarantine. It can take up to 14 days after exposure for an infection to develop, so you could end up testing positive later on.
Who Is More Likely To Become A Long Hauler
Currently, we cant accurately predict who will become a long hauler. As an article in Science notes, people only mildly affected by COVID-19 still can have lingering symptoms, and people who were severely ill can be back to normal two months later.
However, continued symptoms are more likely to occur in people over age 50, people with two or three chronic illnesses, and, possibly, people who became very ill with COVID-19.
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I’ve Heard That The Immune System Produces Different Types Of Antibodies When A Person Is Infected With The Covid
When a person gets a viral or bacterial infection, a healthy immune system makes antibodies against one or more components of the virus or bacterium.
The COVID-19 coronavirus contains ribonucleic acid surrounded by a protective layer, which has spike proteins on the outer surface that can latch on to certain human cells. Once inside the cells, the viral RNA starts to replicate and also turns on the production of proteins, both of which allow the virus to infect more cells and spread throughout the body, especially to the lungs.
While the immune system could potentially respond to different parts of the virus, it’s the spike proteins that get the most attention. Immune cells recognize the spike proteins as a foreign substance and begin producing antibodies in response.
There are two main categories of antibodies:
Binding antibodies. These antibodies can bind to either the spike protein or a different protein known as the nucleocapsid protein. Binding antibodies can be detected with blood tests starting about one week after the initial infection. If antibodies are found, it’s extremely likely that the person has been infected with the COVID-19 coronavirus. The antibody level declines over time after an infection, sometimes to an undetectable level.
Binding antibodies help fight the infection, but they might not offer protection against getting reinfected in the future. It depends on whether they are also neutralizing antibodies.
What Types Of Medications And Health Supplies Should I Have On Hand For An Extended Stay At Home
Try to stock at least a 30-day supply of any needed prescriptions. If your insurance permits 90-day refills, that’s even better. Make sure you also have over-the-counter medications and other health supplies on hand.
Medical and health supplies
- prescribed medical supplies such as glucose and blood-pressure monitoring equipment
- fever and pain medicine, such as acetaminophen
- cough and cold medicines
- soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer
- tissues, toilet paper, disposable diapers, tampons, sanitary napkins
- garbage bags.
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Close Contact With Someone With Covid
You are more likely to get COVID-19 if you are in close contact with a person who has COVID-19 while they are contagious or still able to spread illness to others.
Close contact means:
- Being within 6 feet of a person who has COVID-19 for a total of 15 minutes or more over a 24-hour period, or
- Having direct exposure to respiratory secretions , or
- Caring for a person who has COVID-19, or
- Living with a person who has COVID-19.
Exception: In indoor and outdoor K-12 settings, a student who was within 3 to 6 feet of an infected student is not considered a close contact as long as both students wore well-fitting masks the entire time. This exception may also be applied to school buses when the following criteria are met:
- Documented seating charts and
- Assurance that masks are worn and students remain in assigned seats, either via video monitoring if available, or attestation from the bus driver or monitor.
The K-12 exception does not apply to teachers, staff, or other adults. This means that the standard close contact definition is applied when assessing exposure in a K-12 setting that involves a student with an infected adult or an exposed adult. VDH will continue to monitor the science regarding the effectiveness of this close contact definition and the associated K-12 exception, and will update guidance as necessary. For more details about close contact and quarantine in K-12 school settings, see Clarification of VDH K-12 Close Contact Definitions and Quarantine Periods.
How Long Are You Contagious
People who have COVID-19 can infect others from around 2 days before symptoms start, and for up to 10 days after.
They can pass the infection to others, even if they have mild symptoms or no symptoms at all, which is why they must stay at home, according to government information.
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When Can I Discontinue My Self
If you have not been vaccinated, a full, 14-day quarantine remains the best way to ensure that you don’t spread the virus to others after you’ve been exposed to someone with COVID-19.
However, according to CDC guidelines, you may discontinue quarantine after a minimum of 10 days if you do not have any symptoms, or after a minimum of seven days if you have a negative COVID test within 48 hours of when you plan to end quarantine.
If you are fully vaccinated and have been around someone with or suspected of having COVID-19, you do not need to self-quarantine. However, as of July 2021, the CDC recommends that you be tested three to five days after exposure and wear a mask in public indoor settings for 14 days or until you receive a negative test result.
Impact Of Prevention Measures For Travelers In The Context Of Vaccination
To assess the feasibility of eliminating post-travel testing and self-quarantine recommendations for vaccinated travelers, data from studies that evaluated vaccine effectiveness for infection prevention were reviewed.2 To estimate the impact of vaccination combined with other measures, a range of vaccine effectiveness was used in models previously developed to assess testing and quarantine prevention measures.1 There are currently several vaccines available globally with varying efficacy rates and limited data regarding effectiveness, including against circulating variants estimates were based solely on data available from the three vaccines authorized in the United States.
Preliminary data from Israel suggest that people vaccinated with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine who develop COVID-19 have a four-fold lower viral load than unvaccinated people.3 This observation may indicate reduced transmissibility, as viral load has been identified as a key driver of transmission.3,4
With a 90% effective vaccine, pre-travel testing, post-travel testing, and 7-day self-quarantine provide minimal additional benefit. When adhered to, a pre-travel test plus a 7-day post-arrival self-quarantine for unvaccinated travelers is > 30% more effective at reducing risk compared to travelers vaccinated with a 60% effective vaccine .
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International Air Passenger Contact Information
CDC supports domestic COVID-19 control efforts by making contact information for international air passengers available to state and local health departments for the purpose of public health follow-up or contact tracing. At present, collection of traveler contact information is occurring for passengers from countries subject to entry restrictions under Presidential Proclamation.
Follow-up with travelers may include contacting travelers, providing instructions for what travelers should do if they develop illness compatible with COVID-19, follow-up of test results, and intermittent check-ins during the post-arrival period. Mobile applications or automated text messaging may be useful to provide information to travelers or conduct monitoring of travelers. Follow-up with travelers is at the discretion of health departments and may be considered by jurisdictions that are implementing containment measures. Decisions about whether to conduct follow-up and what it would involve could be based on the status of the COVID-19 outbreak in the jurisdiction, status of the COVID-19 outbreak in travelers countries or states of origin, the volume of travelers, available resources, competing priorities of public health officials, and other factors, as applicable.