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Updated on July 4, 2022 7:56 am
All countries
Updated on July 4, 2022 7:56 am
All countries
Updated on July 4, 2022 7:56 am

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on July 4, 2022 7:56 am
All countries
Updated on July 4, 2022 7:56 am
All countries
Updated on July 4, 2022 7:56 am
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What’s The Difference Between The Covid Vaccines

Does My Covid Booster Or Additional Dose Have To Be The Same Brand That I Got Before

What’s the difference between Covid vaccines? – BBC News

No, you can mix and match brands. The FDA has authorized three vaccine boosters Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Janssen/Johnson & Johnson and determined that it is safe to get a COVID-19 vaccine booster or additional dose that is a different brand than your initial dose or doses.

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is the only vaccine and booster authorized for individuals ages 16 and 17.

If you get the Moderna booster, you will receive half of the original Moderna dose. Please be sure to confirm this with the person giving you the shot.

COVID-19 Vaccine

Booster Vaccination With The Janssen Vaccine

The Health Council of the Netherlands has issued an advisory opinion on using the Janssen vaccine for booster vaccinations. Giving the Janssen vaccine as a booster 3 to 6 months after initial vaccination with Janssen is safe and improves your bodys defences against coronavirus. But the level of protection is not as high as with an mRNA booster dose. The Janssen vaccine can also cause a very rare side effect called TTS, which involves blood clots and very low blood platelets.

You will only get the Janssen vaccine as a booster vaccination if this is specifically in the interests of your health, and you cannot get an mRNA vaccine. If you get the Janssen vaccine, it is important that you are well informed. The GGD and RIVM are still deciding how to arrange booster vaccinations with the Janssen vaccine for those people who need it.

How Viral Vector Vaccines Have Been Used During Recent Disease Outbreaks

Scientists began creating viral vectors in the 1970s. Besides being used in vaccines, viral vectors have also been studied for gene therapy, to treat cancer, and for molecular biology research. For decades, hundreds of scientific studies of viral vector vaccines have been done and published around the world. Some vaccines recently used for Ebola outbreaks have used viral vector technology, and a number of studies have focused on viral vector vaccines against other infectious diseases such as Zika, flu, and HIV.

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Clinical Trial Demographic Information

Clinical trials for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine in people ages 16 years and older included people from the following racial and ethnic, age, and sex categories:


  • 3% other races, multiracial, or race not reported
  • < 1% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
  • < 1% American Indian or Alaska Native


  • 73% not Hispanic or Latino
  • 26% Hispanic or Latino

What Are Mrna Vaccines

whats on the Covid 19 Vaccine box

For their COVID-19 vaccines, Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna use a novel technology that has never been approved for widespread use before the pandemic.

This technology uses messenger ribonucleic acid , which is a molecule that provides cells with genetic instructions for making proteins that are needed for numerous cellular functions in the body, including for energy and immune defence.

In a lab, scientists develop synthetic mRNA that is able to instruct the bodys cells to develop that same distinctive spike protein from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that the viral vector-based vaccines also target.

After the piece of protein is made, the cell breaks down the genetic instructions and gets rid of them. Both Health Canada and the CDC stressed that the mRNA never enters the central part of the cell where a persons DNA material is located, which means the vaccine does not affect or interact with DNA in any way.

Like with the viral vector-based vaccines, the immune system identifies the foreign spike proteins produced by the cells and initiates an immune response by building antibodies against them. If the immune system faces the real SARS-CoV-2 virus, it will be ready to fight it off.

While there are similarities in how both mRNA and viral vector-based vaccines instruct cells to create the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, mRNA vaccines differ in that they dont contain any live virus.

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Coronavirus Vaccine 3rd Dose

People with a weakened immune system are being offered a 3rd dose of a coronavirus vaccine. This is also known as a 3rd primary dose.

If you had a weakened immune system when you had your first 2 doses, the vaccine may not have given you as much protection as it can for people who do not have a weakened immune system.

A 3rd dose may help give you better protection.

The 3rd vaccine dose for people with a weakened immune system is different to a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose.

Coronavirus Disease : Vaccines

There are several COVID-19 vaccines validated for use by WHO . The first mass vaccination programme started in early December 2020 and the number of vaccination doses administered is updated on a daily basis on the COVID-19 dashboard.

The WHO Emergency Use Listing process determines whether a product can be recommended for use based on all the available data on safety and efficacy and on its suitability in low- and middle-income countries. Vaccines are assessed to ensure they meet acceptable standards of quality, safety and efficacy using clinical trial data, manufacturing and quality control processes. The assessment weighs the threat posed by the emergency as well as the benefit that would accrue from the use of the product against any potential risks.

In line with their national regulations and legislation, countries have the autonomy to issue emergency use authorizations for any health product. Domestic emergency use authorizations are issued at the discretion of countries and not subject to WHO approval.

As of 26 November 2021, the following vaccines have obtained EUL:

If you live in a country where vaccines are available to more people beyond these priority groups, get vaccinated as soon as it is your turn.

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What Are Covid Booster Side Effects

After getting vaccinated for COVID-19, you might experience some temporary symptoms similar to those you might notice when you get a flu shot, such as a sore, swollen arm where you got the shot. You might run a fever and experience body aches, headaches and tiredness for a day or two. Chills, swollen lymph nodes can also occur.

These symptoms do not mean you are sick. They signal that your immune system is responding to the shots and building up protection against the coronavirus.

Equally Effective Protection With Interval Of 21 Days Or 28 Days Between First And Second Vaccination

Coronavirus vaccine: Physician breaks down the differences between COVID-19 vaccines

Your body produces antibodies after you are vaccinated. 7 to 14 days after the first vaccination with Pfizer or Moderna, 90% of vaccinated people are protected against COVID-19. We do not yet know exactly how long a person remains protected. After a few weeks, antibody levels start dropping and protection becomes less effective. That is why a second vaccination is needed, which you will receive about 4 to 6 weeks after the first vaccination. In response to the second vaccination, your body makes more antibodies that persist for longer and are able to resist the virus more effectively. In terms of protection after the second vaccination, it does not matter whether you receive the second vaccination after 4-6 weeks or a bit later: you are equally well protected.

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How Do I Get Monoclonal Antibodies

Since monoclonal antibodies are primarily given in infusion centers, not doctorsâ offices, getting access isnât always straightforward. And many doctors still arenât very experienced with the treatment, Petty says.

Still, if you or a loved one has tested positive or been exposed and you think you might qualify for treatment, the first step is to contact your doctor. If they are familiar with monoclonal antibodies, they can help you get the treatment and bypass a lot of the work for you, Petty says.

If your doctor isnât familiar with monoclonal antibodies, you should still talk to them about your interest in treatment. You can use websites from the Department of Health and Human Services and Infusion Centers of America to find a nearby treatment site.

Many of these sites require a referral from a doctor, Fales says. If you donât have a referral, they often can help you get one if you call ahead, whether through your doctor, a doctor at the infusion center, a telehealth consultation, or a local urgent care clinic.

Can I Help Relatives In Assisted Living Get It

If you believe that a relative in a residential facility — like a nursing home, assisted living facility, long-term care home, or prison — has COVID-19 or has been exposed, the first thing you should do is have a conversation with the medical leadership at the facility.

Fales has partnered Michigan-based paramedics with several nursing homes in the state to have monoclonal antibodies delivered to these facilities when thereâs anoutbreak. Itâs also possible for long-term care pharmacies to get monoclonal antibodies to administer in-house. If the medical leadership doesnât appear to be aware of the treatment, you can use the same websites to find the nearest infusion center and begin coordinating treatment with it.

It’s a good idea, Fales says, to find out where monoclonal antibodies are offered in your area, and perhaps talk with your doctor or a high-risk loved oneâs doctor about how to get them, to be prepared. The faster you can get the treatment, the more likely it will help.

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The Road Ahead: Charting The Coronavirus Pandemic Over The Next 12 Months And Beyond

And even though the studies by Karikó and Weissman went unnoticed by some, they caught the attention of two key scientists one in the United States, another abroad who would later help found Moderna and Pfizers future partner, BioNTech.

Derrick Rossi, a native of Toronto who rooted for the Maple Leafs and sported a soul patch, was a 39-year-old postdoctoral fellow in stem cell biology at Stanford University in 2005 when he read the first paper. Not only did he recognize it as groundbreaking, he now says Karikó and Weissman deserve the Nobel Prize in chemistry.

If anyone asks me whom to vote for some day down the line, I would put them front and center, he said. That fundamental discovery is going to go into medicines that help the world.

But Rossi didnt have vaccines on his mind when he set out to build on their findings in 2007 as a new assistant professor at Harvard Medical School running his own lab.

He wondered whether modified messenger RNA might hold the key to obtaining something else researchers desperately wanted: a new source of embryonic stem cells.

In a feat of biological alchemy, embryonic stem cells can turn into any type of cell in the body. That gives them the potential to treat a dizzying array of conditions, from Parkinsons disease to spinal cord injuries.

But using those cells for research had created an ethical firestorm because they are harvested from discarded embryos.

Langer could barely contain his excitement when he got home to his wife.

What To Read Watch And Listen To About Coronavirus

whats on the Covid 19 Vaccine box

New Scientist Weekly features updates and analysis on the latest developments in the covid-19 pandemic. Our podcast sees expert journalists from the magazine discuss the biggest science stories to hit the headlines each week from technology and space, to health and the environment.

The Jump is a BBC Radio 4 series exploring how viruses can cross from animals into humans to cause pandemics. The first episode examines the origins of the covid-19 pandemic.

Why Is Covid Killing People of Colour? is a BBC documentary, which investigates what the high covid-19 death rates in ethnic minority patients reveal about health inequality in the UK.

Panorama: The Race for a Vaccine is a BBC documentary about the inside story of the development of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine against covid-19.

Race Against the Virus: Hunt for a Vaccine is a Channel 4 documentary which tells the story of the coronavirus pandemic through the eyes of the scientists on the frontline.

The New York Times is assessing the progress in development of potential drug treatments for covid-19, and ranking them for effectiveness and safety.

Humans of COVID-19 is a project highlighting the experiences of key workers on the frontline in the fight against coronavirus in the UK, through social media.

Coronavirus, Explained on Netflix is a short documentary series examining the coronavirus pandemic, the efforts to fight it and ways to manage its mental health toll.

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How Do The Side Effects Compare

When it comes to new vaccines, the issue of safety is understandably on everyoneâs minds.

The question âhow safe is this vaccine?â can be translated as âwhat is the risk of developing side effects from this vaccine?â And, in answering this query, it is important to note there is no drug â not even the most common painkiller â that is entirely free from side effects.

Scientists have broken down the side effects that they expect to occur with the BioNTech vaccine â currently the only one with approval for use in the U.K. and the U.S. â into âvery common,â âcommon,â and âuncommon.â

Very common side effects, which may affect more than 1 in 10 people, include:

  • pain at the injection site
  • tiredness

recommend that everyone take the flu vaccine, except for children younger than 6 months of age or those with severe allergies to the flu vaccine or any ingredient in the vaccine.

For MMR, the listed as common by the CDC are:

  • sore arm from the shot
  • fever
  • mild rash
  • temporary pain and stiffness in the joints

Rarely, the vaccine may trigger febrile seizures, swelling in the cheeks or neck, or a temporary low platelet count in the blood. However, none of these are life threatening or have long-term effects.

Why Would We Ever Go Back: Covid

For now, the vaccines will continue to be used primarily in two groups most at risk of getting infected or developing severe disease: health care providers and residents and staff of long-term care facilities. Modernas vaccine was authorized for individuals 18 and older, while the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine was authorized for individuals 16 and older.

In clinical trials, Modernas vaccine was 94% effective in decreasing symptomatic Covid-19 infections, while also preventing more severe forms of the disease. Its effectiveness was roughly in line with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine.

The vaccine caused side effects including pain at the injection site, tiredness, headache, muscle pain, chills, joint pain, swollen lymph nodes in the same arm as the injection, nausea and vomiting, and fever. Side effects typically lasted several days.

I think that ultimately, if these are managed well, if we communicate the expectations well, I think particularly among those who are eager to get back to a normal life, which I think that includes many of us, there will be reasonable uptake of this and well continue to communicate about these side effects to help people be prepared to know what to expect, he said.

The Moderna vaccine may also be easier to distribute, because it can be transported for longer in normal freezers, and kept longer at normal refrigerator temperatures.

Helen Branswell contributed reporting.

This story has been updated with details from an FDA media briefing.

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Arent Cold Storage And Stability Some Of The Reasons The Rollout Of The Vaccine Has Been A Challenge

We have the capacity in a lot of the U.S. to get the cold storage mRNA vaccines out, but it can be a challenge in rural areas. When you start talking about a vaccine that is more stable and only involves a single shot, this is great news. The easier it is to give, the more people were going to vaccinate in the U.S. But this is also true internationally, where delivering a tricky mRNA vaccine can be a challenge in some areas due to the cold storage requirements.

How Effective Is The Covid

Difference between Moderna and Pfizer COVID-19 vaccines

As with any vaccine, the Pfizer vaccine may not fully protect everyone who gets it. However, it is highly effective if people have both doses. That means, if you do catch COVID-19, youre far less likely to fall seriously ill and less likely to transmit the virus to others.

The COVID-19 vaccine stimulates your bodys immune system to produce antibodies and other proteins that will fight the virus if youre exposed to it. This reduces the risk of getting infected and if you do get COVID-19, it means you could have no symptoms or will have much fewer, milder symptoms and recover faster.

While the data is clear that vaccines protect people from the effects of COVID-19, research is ongoing to determine whether a vaccinated person could still transmit the virus to someone else so to be safe, we must assume there is still a risk of transmission.


The point of the vaccine is it dramatically reduces your risk of getting COVID-19, absolutely.

If you have been vaccinated, even with the Delta variant youve got more than 90% chance of not ending up in hospital, not being in intensive care and not dying. So thats pretty bloody good odds.

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What Are Vaccines And How Do They Work

A vaccine is often regarded as active immunity. Usually, a vaccine is a virus in itself that is no longer active or even a fragment of a virus. The way vaccines work is that it is injected into a person and the persons immune system reacts to the virus the way it will to an active virus but in this situation, the person wont fall ill but instead provide the patient with what is regarded as immune memory. This is because the body or immune system has learned how to adapt to the virus protecting it from future infection of a particular kind.

For instance, the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is like injecting a person with the inactive version of the virus thereby equipping the person with an immune memory of the virus making it possible for the immune system to clear out any active SARS-CoV-2 in the system and prevent it from infecting healthy cells. The immunity provided by vaccines can last for a long time even a lifetime and they are 100% safe. Covid-19 Vaccines can help protect people against contracting the virus and is also effective in the case of patients that are already ill.

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