Whos Most At Risk For Getting Covid
Persons at greatest risk of contracting COVID-19 are:
- People who live in or have recently traveled to any area with ongoing active spread.
- People who have had close contact with a person who has a laboratory-confirmed or a suspected case of the COVID-19 virus. Close contact is defined as being within 6 feet of an infected person for a cumulative total of 15 minutes or more over a 24-hour period.
- People over age 60 who have pre-existing medical conditions or a weakened immune system.
Caring For Someone Who Is Sick
Below are some tips on how to care for someone who is sick with COVID-19:
- Monitor the persons symptoms closely, and ask them to provide regular updates on how they are feeling.
- Treat the symptoms. Where appropriate, provide acetaminophen to reduce a fever, and give cough medicine to alleviate a cough.
People who are caring for someone at home should also take steps to prevent the spread of the virus to themselves and others. To do so, they should:
- Ensure that the person they are caring for self-isolates in a separate room of the home and uses a separate bathroom, if possible.
- Ensure that they and the person they are caring for wear a face mask. If face masks are unavailable, a person can wear a bandana or wrap a scarf around their face.
- Wear disposable gloves when handling the persons garbage or soiled laundry. Immediately dispose of the gloves after use.
- Wash the hands often with soap and water, especially after interacting with the person who is sick or touching anything they have touched.
- Disinfect frequently used surfaces throughout the home every day. Use separate cleaning cloths, sponges, and mops for isolation rooms to avoid spreading the virus to other areas of the home.
If You Test Positive Or Have Symptoms
- Stay home and away from others for at least five days after your symptoms started. If you do not have symptoms, stay home for five days from the date you tested positive, even if you are fully vaccinated. Refer to the how long to stay home section below.
- You can spread COVID-19 to others starting a couple days before you have any symptoms, and even if you never have any symptoms.
Wear a well-fitting mask for 10 days when around others, even at home. The 10 days start the day after you got symptoms. If you do not have symptoms, the 10 days start the day after you got tested.
If you have symptoms:
Stay home until all three of the following are true:
If you do not have symptoms:
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I Recently Spent Time With Someone Who Tested Positive For Covid
Yes, you do. In July 2021, the CDC recommended that anyone who is fully vaccinated and comes into contact with someone who has, or is suspected of having, COVID-19 should get tested three to five days after exposure. In addition, you should wear a mask in public indoor settings for 14 days or until you receive a negative test result. If you are vaccinated, you do not need to quarantine, but you should isolate if you develop symptoms or receive a positive test result.
Previously, the CDC had said that someone who was fully vaccinated only needed to get tested after exposure if they were experiencing symptoms. The change follows new evidence regarding the Delta variant, which shows that people who are vaccinated and then get infected can spread the virus to others, perhaps to the same extent as those who are unvaccinated.
If you are not fully vaccinated, a 14-day quarantine remains the best way to avoid spreading the virus to others after you’ve been exposed to someone with COVID-19. According to CDC guidelines, you may discontinue quarantine after a minimum of 10 days if you do not have any symptoms, or after a minimum of seven days if you have a negative COVID test within 48 hours of when you plan to end quarantine.
How Can I Prevent Getting The Novel Coronavirus
The best defense to prevent getting COVID-19 is to get vaccinated. You should also follow the same steps you would take to prevent getting other viruses, such as the common cold or the flu.
- Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds especially before eating and preparing food, after using the bathroom, after wiping your nose, and after coming in contact with someone who has a cold.
- Wear a multilayered cloth facemask that fits snugly on your face and covers your mouth, nose and chin.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth to prevent the spread of viruses from your hands.
- Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when sneezing and coughing or sneeze and cough into your sleeve. Throw the tissue in the trash. Wash your hands afterward. Never cough or sneeze into your hands!
- Avoid close contact with those who have coughs, colds or are sick. Stay home if you are sick.
- If you are prone to sickness or have a weakened immune system, stay away from large crowds of people. Follow the directions of your healthcare authorities especially during outbreaks.
- Clean frequently used surfaces with a virus-killing disinfectant.
- Use hand sanitizers that contain at least 60% alcohol if soap and water are not available.
- Greet people with a friendly gesture instead of shaking hands.
- Get enough sleep, eat a healthy diet, drink plenty of liquids and exercise if you are able. These steps will strengthen your immune system and enable you to fight off infections easier.
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I’ve Heard That The Immune System Produces Different Types Of Antibodies When A Person Is Infected With The Covid
When a person gets a viral or bacterial infection, a healthy immune system makes antibodies against one or more components of the virus or bacterium.
The COVID-19 coronavirus contains ribonucleic acid surrounded by a protective layer, which has spike proteins on the outer surface that can latch on to certain human cells. Once inside the cells, the viral RNA starts to replicate and also turns on the production of proteins, both of which allow the virus to infect more cells and spread throughout the body, especially to the lungs.
While the immune system could potentially respond to different parts of the virus, it’s the spike proteins that get the most attention. Immune cells recognize the spike proteins as a foreign substance and begin producing antibodies in response.
There are two main categories of antibodies:
Binding antibodies. These antibodies can bind to either the spike protein or a different protein known as the nucleocapsid protein. Binding antibodies can be detected with blood tests starting about one week after the initial infection. If antibodies are found, it’s extremely likely that the person has been infected with the COVID-19 coronavirus. The antibody level declines over time after an infection, sometimes to an undetectable level.
Binding antibodies help fight the infection, but they might not offer protection against getting reinfected in the future. It depends on whether they are also neutralizing antibodies.
How Do You Get Infected With Covid
COVID-19 enters your body through your mouth, nose or eyes . The virus travels to the back of your nasal passages and mucous membrane in the back of your throat. It attaches to cells there, begins to multiply and moves into lung tissue. From there, the virus can spread to other body tissues.
How does the new coronavirus spread from person to person?
COVID-19 is likely spread:
- The virus travels in respiratory droplets released into the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, sings or breathes near you . You may be infected if you inhale these droplets.
- You can also get COVID-19 from close contact with an infected person and then touching your face.
- Its considered possible to get COVID-19 after touching a contaminated surface and then touching your eyes, mouth, or nose before washing your hands. But its thought to be unlikely.
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How Long After Covid Exposure Could You Test Positive
According to the CDC, the incubation period for COVID is between two and 14 days, though the newest guidance from the agency suggests a quarantine of five days for those who are not boosted, but eligible or unvaccinated. Those looking to get tested after exposure should do so five days after the exposure or if they begin experiencing, the CDC recommends.
Those who are boosted and vaccinated, or those who are fully vaccinated and not yet eligible for a booster shot, do not need to quarantine, but should wear masks for 10 days and also get tested five days after the exposure, unless they are experiencing symptoms.
Still, for those who are vaccinated and boosted but are still looking to be cautious, Chicago Department of Public Health Commissioner Dr. Allison Arwady said an additional test at seven days could help.
“If you’re taking multiple at home tests, you know, the recommendation is five days later take a test. But if you have taken one at five and it’s negative and you’re feeling good, chances are very good that you’re not going to have any more issues there,” she said. “I think if you’re being extra careful there, if you wanted to test again, you know, at seven even, sometimes people look at three to get an earlier sense of things. But if you’re gonna do it once do it in five and I feel good about that.”
Arwady said testing is likely not necessary after seven days following exposure for those who are vaccinated and boosted.
Practice Proper Hand Hygiene
Practicing proper hand hygiene is a very effective way to prevent the spread of COVID-19.
This is because it reduces a persons risk of contracting the infection if they touch their face and reduces the likelihood of transferring the virus to other people or surfaces that people may touch.
To wash the hands properly, use water and soap and scrub for . Some key times to wash the hands include:
- when they are visibly dirty
- before and after food preparation
- before eating
- after changing a diaper or helping a child who has used the potty or toilet
- after touching an animal or their food or waste
- after handling garbage
- before inserting or removing contact lenses
- after coughing, sneezing, or blowing the nose
- before and after treating wounds
- before and after taking care of someone who is sick
When soap and water are unavailable, a person should use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
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What Are The Other Symptoms To Watch For After Covid Exposure
With some omicron cases, particularly breakthrough infections in those who are boosted and vaccinated, remaining mild, many are wondering how to tell if it’s a cold, the flu or COVID-19.
Arwady said that now, those who are fully vaccinated aren’t necessarily getting “seriously ill and having fevers for days and difficult breathing,” but are instead experiencing a more mild illness.
“They may only feel like they have a cold,” she said. “That’s good because they’re not getting seriously sick, they’re not threatening the healthcare system, but it’s certainly of some concern because they do have the potential to transmit to others.”
Those who are unvaccinated, however, are experiencing similar symptoms to early on in the pandemic, Arwady said.
Arwady’s comments echo those of other medical experts who are watching omicron cases.
Dr. Katherine Poehling, an infectious disease specialist and member of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, told NBC News last week that a cough, congestion, runny nose and fatigue appear to be prominent symptoms with the omicron variant. But unlike delta, many patients are not losing their taste or smell.
The evidence so far, according to Poehling, is anecdotal and not based on scientific research. She noted also that these symptoms may only reflect certain populations.
Still, CDC data showed the most common symptoms so far are cough, fatigue, congestion and a runny nose.
Overall, the symptoms for COVID reported by the CDC include:
When Should I Seek Medical Advice
Most people can manage COVID-19 at home. Those who have mild COVID-19 symptoms may be advised that it is safe for them to manage their symptoms at home instead of going to hospital.
The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners has developed a guide for people managing COVID at home. It includes a COVID-19 action plan and a diary that you can use to track your symptoms.
Ask yourself this 3 times a day am I able to:
- get my own food?
- drink without any help?
- go to the toilet normally?
- take my regular medication?
If you answer no to any of these questions, call your GP.
You should also contact your GP if you feel dizzy or lightheaded or your symptoms start to worsen.
If you need to attend a medical centre in person:
- Contact the medical centre beforehand to tell staff that you have COVID-19.
- Take a private vehicle or walk if practical. You shouldnt take public transport, taxis or ride-share cars.
- Wear a face mask while travelling and when in the practice. Others in the vehicle should also wear a face mask.
- Tell staff straight away that you have COVID-19, and follow their instructions.
If you are experiencing any severe symptoms call triple zero for an ambulance and tell the ambulance staff that you have COVID-19.
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You May Have Loss Of Taste And Smell
“According to one study, 95% of the patients recover their sense of taste and smell eventually,” says Dr. Sanghavi. “It may take months, but their sense of taste and smell sensation would come back. Initially it was thought that it is a direct invasion of virus into the olfactory cells or the neurons, but now, as we understand the process more, it seems like this impacts the helper cells and not the neurons directly. And as the helper cells recover, the sense of taste and smell recover too. People may ask if they can do anything to get it back and re-sensitization with aromatherapy is one way that could potentially work, but there is no clear proof that anything works right now.”
If You Have A Pulse Oximeter
A pulse oximeter is a device that clips on your finger to check the level of oxygen in your blood.
Low levels of oxygen in your blood can be a sign you’re getting worse. A pulse oximeter can help you spot this before you feel breathless or have any other symptoms, so you can get help quickly.
You may be asked by a GP or healthcare professional to monitor your oxygen levels if you’re at a high risk of becoming seriously ill from COVID-19.
If you’re using a pulse oximeter at home, make sure it has a CE mark, UKCA mark or CE UKNI mark. This means that the device will work properly and is safe if used correctly.
If you’ve been given a pulse oximeter to use, watch an NHS YouTube video about how to use a pulse oximeter and when to get help.
It’s helpful to write down your readings, so you know what your oxygen level is when you first use the pulse oximeter and can spot if your level is going down. This can also help if you need to speak to a healthcare professional.
Speak to a GP or healthcare professional before using your pulse oximeter and tell them if you have any questions or concerns.
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What Should I Do If My At
If your at-home test is positive, stay home and away from others for at least 5 days and follow the recommendations in the table below. Be sure to notify your contacts because they may need to stay home, get tested, and monitor their health to make sure they do not get sick and infect others.
Mild symptoms can typically be managed at home and with over-the-counter medications. Contact your healthcare provider after testing positive if your symptoms are worsening OR if you are at higher risk of progressing to severe illness . If you are uncertain about your risk or have questions about your care, please speak to your healthcare provider. Early treatment options are available for certain individuals.
To report positive results from an at-home test, check if the test has instructions on how to report your results to the manufacturer.
How Long Do Covid Symptoms Last
People with severe COVID-19 symptoms typically follow a pattern which begins with loss of taste and/or smell, fever, and cough in the first couple of days. This cough then develops into severe respiratory symptoms which can require hospital treatment around a week after their symptoms started.
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