Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
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When Is Covid Vaccine Effective

Recent Mayo Clinic Study Says The J& j Vaccine Appears Highly Effective At Preventing Covid

COVID Vaccine effective against Omicron and other health news

A new Mayo Clinic Health System study found that the one-dose J& J COVID-19 vaccine is about 74% effective at preventing COVID-19 infections. Researchers reviewed Mayo Clinic Health System records across five different states.

This study included the health records of close to 9,000 U.S. adults who received the J& J vaccine. Researchers compared them to about 89,000 unvaccinated U.S. adults. In the study, less than 1% of people who received the vaccine ended up testing positive for COVID-19. By comparison, between 2% and 3% of unvaccinated people tested positive.

But of the people who did develop COVID-19, adults who received the J& J vaccine were less likely to develop severe COVID-19 symptoms than unvaccinated adults.

This data was collected between February and July 2021. This includes times when both the Alpha and Delta variants were the most prevalent. The Delta variant currently makes up about 99% of all U.S. COVID-19 cases.

  • What this means: Data continues to show that the J& J vaccine is an effective COVID-19 vaccine option.

  • What this doesnt mean: Protection from a J& J booster shot is reflected in these results. Even though booster shots have been in the news recently, vaccinated people in this study only received one dose of the J& J vaccine.

To read more about this study, click or tap here.

What Are The Advantages To This Vaccine

AstraZeneca can be shipped and stored at regular refrigerator temperature, unlike Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna, which need colder storage temperatures.

From a global vaccination standpoint, the low cost of AstraZeneca’s vaccine — about US$4 per dose — gives it another advantage. AstraZeneca, which says it aims to manufacture up to three billion doses in 2021, has pledged to make their product available at cost around the world until at least July.

— With files from Canadian Press reporter Cassandra Szklarski

This report by The Canadian Press was first published March 16, 2021.

Safety And Effectiveness Frequently Asked Questions

What’s the difference between the Comirnaty and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines?

Comirnaty and Pfizer-BioNTech are actually the same vaccine. Before the Food and Drug Administration approves a vaccine, it’s known by the company that created it . Once the FDA granted approval, Pfizer chose a brand name for the vaccine .

In November 2021, Pfizer released an updated formula of the Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine. The update allows providers to administer the vaccine without using a diluent. Providers can still use any remaining vials of the formulation for people 12 years and older. Children 5 to 11 years old may only get the pediatric formula of the vaccine.

What does it mean when a vaccine is fully licensed?

For full approval, the FDA evaluates data over a longer period of time than for an emergency use authorization. For the vaccine to be given full approval, the data must show a high level of safety, effectiveness, and quality control in vaccine production. The purpose of emergency use authorization is to ensure that people can get lifesaving vaccines prior to a longer-term analysis of data. However, EUA still requires a very thorough review of clinical datajust over a shorter period of time.

How do we know the vaccines are safe?

Three vaccines are authorized for emergency use or fully approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration . These vaccines are currently offered in Washington state.

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Answers To More Questions About:

CDC does not keep vaccination records or determine how vaccination records are used. To update your records with vaccines you received while outside of the United States, you may:

  • Contact the immunization information system in your state. You can find state IIS information on the CDC website.
  • Contact your healthcare provider or your local or state immunization program through your states health department.

The CDC-labeled white COVID-19 Vaccination Record Cards are only issued to people vaccinated in the United States. CDC recommends you keep your documentation of being vaccinated in the other country as proof of vaccination. CDC also recommends checking with your primary care provider or state health department for options to document your vaccination status domestically.

If you have received all recommended doses of a COVID-19 vaccine that has been authorized or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or is listed for emergency use by the World Health Organization , then you are considered to be fully vaccinated. This currently includes the following vaccines:

Visit the clinical considerations webpage for more information.

While COVID-19 vaccines were developed rapidly, all steps were taken to make sure they are safe and effective:

Learn more about developing COVID-19 vaccines.

Yes, you should be vaccinated regardless of whether you already had COVID-19 because:

Related pages:

Duration Of Effectiveness Of Vaccines Against Sars

  • Contributed equallyAffiliationsInternational Vaccine Access Center, Department of International Health, John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MA, USA
  • Rafael AraosAffiliationsInstituto de Ciencias e Innovacion en Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Clinica Alemana Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, ChileAdvanced Centre for Chronic Diseases, Santiago, Chile
  • National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South AfricaSchool of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
  • Amit HuppertAffiliationsThe Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Sheba Medical Centre, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • Contributed equallyAffiliationsInternational Vaccine Access Center, Department of International Health, John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MA, USA
  • Contributed equally

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Information On Available Vaccines

There are currently three COVID-19 vaccines available in the United States: the Pfizer vaccine, the Moderna vaccine, and the Johnson & Johnson vaccine.

Heres whats important to know: Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are safer and more effective than the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine. Individuals who are unable or unwilling to receive an mRNA vaccine will continue to have access to Johnson & Johnsons COVID-19 vaccine. All three FDA-approved vaccines are effective at preventing serious illness, hospitalization, and COVID-19 related deaths. Getting vaccinated is the best way to protect yourself and your family from the risks of COVID-19.


Authorized for individuals ages 5 and up.Type: mRNADose: 2 doses 21 days apartHow well the vaccine works: Based on evidence from clinical trials, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was 95% effective at preventing laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 illness in people without evidence of previous infection.

Authorized for individuals ages 18 and up.Type: mRNADose: 2 doses 28 days apartHow well the vaccine works: Based on evidence from clinical trials in people 18 years and older, the Moderna vaccine was 94.1% effective at preventing laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 illness in people who received two doses who had no evidence of being previously infected.

Pfizer/comirnaty Moderna And Johnson & Johnson Janssen Covid

Like other routine vaccines, the most common side effects are a sore arm, fatigue, headache, and muscle pain.

These symptoms are a sign that the vaccine is working. In the Pfizer and Moderna trials, these side effects occurred most often within two days of getting the vaccine, and lasted about a day. Side effects were more common after the second dose than the first dose. In the Johnson & Johnson clinical trials, side effects lasted an average of one to two days.

For all three vaccines, people over age 55 were less likely to report side effects than younger people.

Clinical trials found that approximately:

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Johnson & Johnson Janssen Covid

This vaccine is authorized for emergency use in individuals age 18 years and older. This is a single dose vaccine.

CDC and DOH recommend people 18 years and older choose to get an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine instead of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. The J& J vaccine is still available, and you can talk to your health care provider about your options if you would like to receive it.

People 18 years and older who got the Johnson & Johnson vaccine should get a booster dose two or more months after their first dose. You can get the same or a different vaccine for your booster dose than the vaccine you received for your primary series, but getting Pfizer or Moderna vaccine for your booster is preferred over getting a second dose of J& J. There is no recommendation at this time to get more than two total doses of vaccine. Although severe side effects are rare, some individuals might benefit from receiving a mRNA booster instead of an additional dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. See your healthcare practitioner for more information.

You are not considered fully protected until one to two weeks after you get the primary dose of the vaccine.

Do I Need The Vaccine If Ive Already Had Covid

Progress in coronavirus vaccine development, Pfizer says vaccine 90% effective

Yes. You can more than double your protection against re-infection by getting vaccinated. A study published on Aug 6, 2021, compared Kentucky residents infected with SARS-CoV-2 in May/June 2020 and re-infected a year later to those not re-infected. The study found that unvaccinated people were 2.34 times more likely to get re-infected than those vaccinated.

Once they have completed their isolation period, people previously infected with COVID-19 may receive the vaccine. According to the CDC, people appear to become susceptible to reinfection after more than 90 days from the time they were initially infected. Reinfection appears to be rare during the first 90 days after someone was infected with COVID-19.

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Are The Vaccines Safe

Participants in the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson trials experienced side effects after vaccination, including injection-site pain, fever, chills, headaches, muscle aches and joint pain. These symptoms are usually mild to moderate in severity and are temporary. They are also in line with side effects that some people experience from other vaccines, including the flu shot and the vaccine to prevent shingles.

More serious reactions have occurred but are rare. Anaphylaxis, a severe allergic reaction, has happened in a small number of people after COVID vaccination, the CDC says. This is why you may be asked to wait about 15 minutes after your shot or booster to monitor for symptoms. Vaccines providers are equipped with medicines to quickly treat the reaction.

Health officials are also monitoring rare reports of myocarditis and pericarditis in some adolescents and younger adults who have received the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines. Most of these patients who received care responded well to medicine and felt better quickly, the CDC says.

Preparing For Your Vaccine

You can get a COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines, including a flu vaccine, at the same visit. Experience with other vaccines has shown that the way our bodies develop protection, known as an immune response, and possible side effects after getting vaccinated are generally the same when given alone or with other vaccines. Learn more about the timing of other vaccines.

You should get a COVID-19 vaccine even if you already had COVID-19.

Getting sick with COVID-19 offers some protection from future illness with COVID-19, sometimes called natural immunity. The level of protection people get from having COVID-19 may vary depending on how mild or severe their illness was, the time since their infection, and their age. No currently available test can reliably determine if a person is protected from infection.

All COVID-19 vaccines currently available in the United States are effective at preventing COVID-19. Getting a COVID-19 vaccine gives most people a high level of protection against COVID-19 even in people who have already been sick with COVID-19.

Emerging evidence shows that getting a COVID-19 vaccine after you recover from COVID-19 infection provides added protection to your immune system. One study showed that, for people who already had COVID-19, those who do not get vaccinated after their recovery are more than 2 times as likely to get COVID-19 again than those who get fully vaccinated after their recovery.

Related pages:

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Herd Immunity: An Explanation

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, the term herd immunity was possibly something you only heard about during flu season or during reports of upticks in measles casesif at all.

But COVID-19 has brought that conceptwhen an infectious disease is less likely to spread because enough people have immunity either through exposure or vaccinationto the front of our minds. Now that we have effective coronavirus vaccines, many are wondering if and when we will reach herd immunity with COVID-19.

Manisha Juthani, MD, and other Yale experts explain herd immunity, why it matters, and what needs to happen to get there.

Does It Work Against The New Variants

1 dose of Moderna, Pfizer vaccines effective against COVID ...

AstraZeneca’s vaccine had some promising data last month suggesting it works against the variant first detected in the U.K. Findings based on swabs taken from around 500 volunteers in trials between October and January showed a 74.6 per cent efficacy rate against that variant.

A group of experts on immunization working with the World Health Organization recommended the use of AstraZeneca’s vaccine in February, even in countries where variants have emerged as dominant.

That guidance came after a small study in South Africa suggested AstraZeneca’s vaccine was only minimally effective against the variant first detected there, causing the country to halt use of the product.

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How Long Does It Take To Have Immunity After Vaccination

Both the Pfizer and the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines require the full 2 dose course for the best immune response. Whilst partial protection against COVID-19 may be as soon as 12 days after the first dose, this protection is likely to be short lived. The second dose encourages the body to create stronger protection against the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19.

Individuals may not be fully protected until 7-14 days after their second dose of the Pfizer or AstraZeneca ) vaccine.

Because of this, you can still become ill prior to this time and infect others around you, so you should continue COVIDSafe practices.

With new COVID-19 vaccine developments every day, its normal to have questions or concerns, and possibly feel hesitant about getting a vaccine. That’s why we’re providing accurate, evidence-based answers to questions about COVID-19 vaccines.

What Coronavirus Vaccines Are Available Now

The vaccines from Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson are so far the only products available to Americans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines over the J& J vaccine single-shot version because a rare but serious blood clotting disorder has been linked to it. But J& Js vaccine is still available for people who are unable or unwilling to receive an mRNA vaccine, the CDC said in a statement issued Dec. 16.

Pfizers vaccine is approved for people 16 and older and is available for people ages 5-15 under emergency use authorization Moderna and J& J’s vaccines have been authorized for people 18 and older.

The three vaccines have been found to be effective at preventing COVID-19, including severe illness from an infection. Unvaccinated individuals are nearly 6 times more likely to test positive for COVID-19 than vaccinated people, and they’re 14 times more likely to die from the disease, the latest federal data show.

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Vaccine Efficacy And Effectiveness

All COVID-19 vaccines approved by WHO for emergency use listing have been through randomized clinical trials to test their quality, safety and efficacy. To be approved, vaccines are required to have a high efficacy rate of 50% or above. After approval, they continue to be monitoredfor ongoing safety and effectiveness. But what is the difference between efficacy and effectiveness?

A vaccines efficacy is measured in a controlled clinical trial and is based on how many people who got vaccinated developed the outcome of interest compared with how many people who got the placebo developed the same outcome. Once the study is complete, the numbers of sick people in each group are compared, in order to calculate the relative risk of getting sick depending on whether or not the subjects received the vaccine. From this we get the efficacy a measure of how much the vaccine lowered the risk of getting sick. If a vaccine has high efficacy, a lot fewer people in the group who received the vaccine got sick than the people in the group who received the placebo.

How Long Are Covid

Which Covid-19 vaccine is most effective?
  • John LetzingDigital Editor, Strategic Intelligence, World Economic Forum
    • Experts dont know yet how long COVID-19 vaccines will be effective.
    • Studies of two of the most prominent COVID-19 vaccines suggest they remain effective for at least six months.
    • The CEO of one vaccine maker said immunity may start to fade within a year.

    One of the most pressing questions about COVID-19 vaccines is how long they can provide protection.

    It may be decades, or a matter of months the data necessary to figure that out is accumulating every day. Pfizers CEO said this week that after a full regimen of doses immunity will probably start to fade within a year. According to the WHO, its simply too early to know the exact duration of COVID-19 vaccines because both the disease and the science deployed against it arent yet fully understood.

    Some early evidence is promising. The viruses that caused MERS and SARS are closely related to the virus behind COVID-19, and acquired immunity to both of those diseases has proved relatively durable.

    In terms of COVID-19-specific research, Pfizer and BioNTech said earlier this month that their vaccine remains effective for at least half a year after the second dose, and a study of Modernas version reflected a similar duration. Immunization efforts will have to play out further before we can know more for certain.

    For more context, here are links to further reading from the World Economic Forum’s Strategic Intelligence platform:

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