Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 11:08 am
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 11:08 am
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 11:08 am

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 11:08 am
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 11:08 am
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 11:08 am
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When Was The Covid Vaccine Invented

What Share Of The Population Has Been Fully Vaccinated Against Covid

How were COVID-19 vaccines developed so quickly?

The following chart shows the share of the total population that has been fully vaccinated against COVID-19. This represents the share that have received all doses prescribed by the vaccination protocol. If a person receives the first dose of a 2-dose vaccine, this metric stays the same. If they receive the second dose, the metric goes up by 1.

This data is only available for countries which report the breakdown of doses administered by first and second doses.

Myth: Now That We Have A Vaccine For Covid

FACT:;The thousands of viruses that cause various diseases are very different. Many change year by year, making it difficult to develop one vaccine that works for a long period of time.

Developing vaccines for some disease-causing viruses is tough. For example, the virus that causes HIV can hide and make itself undetectable by the human immune system, which makes creating a vaccine for it extremely difficult.

The common cold can be caused by any one of hundreds of different viruses, so a vaccine for just one of them would not be very effective.


How Did They Help Develop The Pfizer Vaccine

Together with pharmaceutical giant;Pfizer, the couple helped co-develop a jab known as a messenger RNA vaccine.

Conventional vaccines are produced using weakened forms of the virus, but mRNAs use only the virus’s genetic code.

An mRNA vaccine is injected into the body where it enters cells and tells them to create antigens.

These antigens are recognised by the immune system and prepare it to fight coronavirus.

Encouraging interim findings from Pfizer and BioNTech’s mass clinical trial earlier this week raised hopes that the pandemic may soon come to an end.

The UK Government has since bought 40million doses at an estimated cost of £588.4million with ten million hoping to become available before Christmas.

The UK are set to begin the rollout of the vaccine on Tuesday, December 8 with elderly people and NHS staff among the first to receive the vaccine.

The jab is required to be taken in two doses, injected into the arm three apart.

The news is a huge boost to hopes for a safe vaccine to be rolled out across the UK and around the world.

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A Guide To Global Covid

  • Governments, multilateral organizations, and private firms have spent billions of dollars to develop effective vaccines for the new coronavirus.
  • More than a dozen vaccinesincluding ones by Pfizer and BioNTech, Moderna, and Sinopharmare already being distributed, with hundreds of millions of people fully vaccinated so far.
  • Vaccines go through rigorous testing for safety and effectiveness before they are approved for public use, a process that typically takes years.

How Has Development Been Sped Up Amid The Pandemic

U.S. Should Buy Coronavirus Vaccines Before Theyre Invented

Under normal circumstances, during which the stages of vaccine development occur sequentially, a vaccine takes eight to fifteen years on average to get from the lab into the hands of health-care providers. The fastest a vaccine had ever been developed before this pandemic was four years. Following the emergence of COVID-19, however, researchers around the globe accelerated the process by carrying out stages of development simultaneously and by looking to new vaccine technologies. I think what were seeing is remarkable, says Paul Offit, director of the Vaccine Education Center at the Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia. It is a scientific tour de force.

The U.S. Operation Warp Speed timeline hinged on overlapping stages of development; mass production started for strong candidates even while clinical trials were ongoing. Before their vaccines were approved, Moderna received $2.5 billion in a deal under Warp Speed that included the purchase of one hundred million doses, while Pfizer and BioNTech signed a $1.95 billion contract to manufacture and distribute one hundred million doses of their vaccine. Shortly after President Joe Biden took office, his administration bought another hundred million doses each from these companies.

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There Is Unprecedented Financial Support

A lack of sufficient funding especially when the technology is new can slow progress. But, given the need to take control of this pandemic, governments across the globe are financially backing the most promising vaccine candidates the U.S. included.

“The tremendous financial support from the U.S. government is a huge reason a COVID-19 vaccine was brought to the public so quickly,” says Dr. Sostman. “First, it allowed newer, faster vaccine technology to be used. Second, it’s going to expedite vaccine distribution in a way we’ve never seen.”

Typically, vaccine manufacturers wait to produce large quantities of a vaccine until after it’s approved by the FDA. And, depending on the type of vaccine, this large-scale production can take months.

However, given the need to bring a safe, effective vaccine to the public so quickly, the U.S. government funded the manufacturing of several promising vaccines while these candidates were still in clinical trials. This removed the financial risk a vaccine manufacturer would have faced doing this on its own.

“Being able to manufacture large amounts of a vaccine so early on means it can be distributed shortly after it’s approved by the FDA,” says Dr. Sostman. “Instead of waiting months for millions of doses of a vaccine to be made, it’s taken days to get these doses to hospitals.”

The Covid Vaccine Came Out Super Quickly Heres Why Its Safe

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COVID vaccines arrived with historic speed, but the science behind it isn’t new. Years of research put us in a position to deliver vaccines both fast and safely. Our UC expert explains how we got here.

Remember when the pandemic started and some people were really into baking bread?

Lots of people embraced the comfort of sourdough to get them through the frightening first months of the pandemic. Ironically, the reason we can eat bread at all is because thousands of years ago a virus helped us develop a new enzyme that made it easier to digest carbohydrates.

Viruses have developed hand-in-hand with humankind, sometimes as weve seen with COVID-19 to deadly effect. Humans have fought back, developing in the process the concept of vaccines, with the first effective, modern vaccine coming on the scene more than 200 years ago.

Todays COVID-19 vaccines work in much the same way as those early inoculations but are safer and more effective. Its true that they were developed with historic speed but only because they were built on decades of basic research that allowed us to deliver them in record time.

; Each episode explores a groundbreaking idea and the brilliant UC minds behind it.

Recommended Reading: Hank Aaron Dies From Vaccine

How Did The Research Help

Using their prototype coronavirus, the researchers studied the spike protein, which appears on the surface of coronaviruses. These spikes let the coronavirus latch onto cells in our body. When the bodys immune system sees the spike protein, it makes antibodies to try to protect the body from infection. This makes it a good vaccine target.

Traditionally, researchers would try putting the spike protein in the vaccine. When injected, the vaccine would stimulate a persons immune system to protect them from a particular coronavirus. But the team knew that during a pandemic, it would take too long to make large amounts of a specific spike protein.

So, they studied a faster way to get a spike protein into the body. This new approach is to inject mRNA instructions for the spike protein into a persons muscle. The muscle cells then make the spike protein. And then the bodys immune system makes the needed antibodies to protect itself.

Cuba Prepares To Open To Tourists

Russia claims to have developed ‘first’ coronavirus vaccine

The small communist;island nation remained largely sealed off from visitors last year, and managed;to contain the virus by sending;doctors door to door searching for infected residents who were directed to stay in state-run isolation centres.

But after opening;its airports at the end of 2020, it;experienced a surge of COVID-19 cases at the start of this year.

Since then, it has battled;to contain the virus;as its healthcare system has become overwhelmed.;

At the same time, the Caribbean nation has suffered from a collapse in exports;- creating shortages of food, medicine and other essential goods.

The hope is;that its race to vaccinate will soon enable Cuba;to once again;open to travellers, just in time;for its tourist high season.

A statement from the Ministry of Tourism quoted;in the Communist Party newspaper Granma said once borders reopen, it will;no longer require travellers to take a PCR test upon arrival.

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What Is The Timeline For Vaccine Testing And Distribution

Scientists began working on vaccines in early 2020, almost immediately after the novel coronavirus began making headlines, and various pharmaceutical companies made rapid progress in the immunizations’ development in the ensuing months. Before Pfizer, Moderna and AstraZeneca’s news, results were decidedly mixed: Some vaccine trials helped small animals, like mice, stave off the virus, while other trials saw some symptom mitigation in humans and simian subjects.

But researchers clearly moved in the right direction. An article on Reference points out that CDC guidelines require that “vaccines pass through six general stages of development: exploratory, pre-clinical, clinical, regulatory review and approval, manufacturing, and quality control. …Its not unusual for a vaccine to take 10 to 15 years to complete all the phases under normal circumstances.” But considering the accelerated pace at which the recently released COVID-19 vaccines went through development, the United States is now anticipating millions of Americans will be vaccinated by the middle of the year and for us to potentially reach the level of vaccination required to achieve herd immunity by the end of 2021.

How Does A Vaccine Work

Traditionally, vaccines are dead or weakened virus moleculesknown as antigensthat trigger defensive white blood cells in the immune system to create antibodies that bind to the virus and neutralize it.

There are also several types of vaccines that use the viruss genetic materialDNA or RNAto prompt the body to create antibodies. The vaccines by U.S. pharmaceutical giant Pfizer and partnering German firm BioNTech and by U.S.-based Moderna are genetic-based. No vaccine of this kind had ever been approved for commercial use in humans before the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, some COVID-19 vaccines rely on viral vectors, or modified versions of a different virus, to prompt an immune response. Several approved COVID-19 vaccines use viral vectors.

When most of a population has been vaccinated and is immune to a particular disease, even those who are not immune are considered protected because the likelihood of an outbreak is small. This is known as herd immunity. Chicken pox, measles, mumps, and polio are all examples of diseases for which the United States has achieved herd immunity due to vaccines. Scientists are divided about how much of a population must have COVID-19 antibodies to prevent new outbreaks, with estimates ranging from less than half to over 80 percent. Some experts believe that herd immunity for this coronavirus is unreachable, in part due to uneven vaccination rates.

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List Of Authorized And Approved Vaccines

National regulatory authorities have granted emergency use authorizations for fifteen vaccines. Six of those have been approved for emergency or full use by at least one WHO-recognized stringent regulatory authority. Biologic License Applications for the PfizerBioNTech and Moderna COVID19 vaccines have been submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration .

  • ^Serum Institute of India will be producing the ChAdOx1;nCoV-19 vaccine for India and other low- and middle-income countries.
  • ^Oxford name: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Manufacturing in Brazil to be carried out by Oswaldo Cruz Foundation.
  • ^ abRecommended interval. The second dose of the PfizerBioNTech and Moderna vaccines can be administered up to six weeks after the first dose to alleviate a shortage of supplies.
  • ^Long-term storage temperature. The PfizerBioNTech COVID-19 vaccine can be kept between 25 and 15;°C for up to two weeks before use, and between 2 and 8;°C for up to five days before use.
  • ^Storage temperature for the frozen Gam-COVID-Vac formulation. The lyophilised Gam-COVID-Vac-Lyo formulation can be stored at 2-8°C.
  • Vaccine Development: Vaccines Approved For Use And In Clinical Trials

    China pushes emergency use of COVID vaccine despite ...

    The speed at which the first COVID-19 vaccines were developed was extraordinary. We have previously looked into the history of vaccine development. The measles vaccine was found relatively rapidly: it took only 10 years from the discovery of the pathogen to the development of the first vaccine. But for typhoid it took more than a century, and for some diseases for which weve known the pathogens for more than a century we still havent found an effective vaccine.

    The development of a vaccine against COVID-19 has been much faster than the development of any other vaccine. Within less than a year several successful vaccines have already been announced and were approved for use in some countries.;

    The hope is that even more manufacturers develop vaccines for COVID-19. This will be important because eventually a very large share of the world population needs to receive a COVID-19 vaccine.

    We are on the way to several vaccines against COVID-19 vaccine trackers monitor the progress:

    Several institutions maintain websites on which they list COVID-19 candidate vaccines that are currently being developed:

    Oxford/AstraZeneca, Sinopharm/Beijing, Sinovac, Sputnik V

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    Missed Opportunities And Legal Exhaustion

    Kay wasnt the only scientist who noticed MacLachlan and his teams work at the time.

    In 2006, MacLachlans work caught the eye of a talented biochemist Katalin Karikó, a Hungarian scientist who is now a frontrunner for a Nobel Prize for her revolutionary work with mRNA.

    Kariko has worked with BioNTech since 2013, but long before that, she proposed to MacLachlan that they partner to use her messenger RNA with his delivery system.

    In an email to CTV News, Kariko explained that she asked him constantly in 2006 to consider using his LNP with mRNA.

    I that he was formulating the siRNA, and I wanted him to try the mRNA as well, she said. Why did I want to formulate the mRNA with LNP? The mRNA product needed shelf-life. We need formulated mRNA that can be stored in the freezer for extended time.

    However, MacLachlan was embroiled in legal conflicts over the technology, and so he declined Karikos idea.

    We were a small company at the time, and very much focused on the siRNA drugs, as opposed to the mRNA drugs, he added.

    The legal battles played a role, and after around a decade of legal wrangling over the ownership of , MacLachlan was drained.

    He said as the company expanded and there were partners who werent necessarily very well behaved, leading to legal disputes with them over the ownership of the delivery system.

    That was a very unfortunate distraction, and something that I didn’t want to spend the rest of my life having to deal with, MacLachlan said.

    How Were The Vaccines Developed

    As you may have heard, the U.S. government enacted an objective called Operation Warp Speed, and despite its sci-fi name, the plan had a very real goal: to develop a vaccine on an accelerated timeline and deliver 300 million doses to the public by January 2021. Vaccinologists later told CNN that this timeline was wildly unrealistic, which proved to be true: By January 6, 2021, just over 17 million doses had been distributed across the country. Fortunately, rollouts began accelerating as vaccine supplies increased in the months afterward.

    Initially, in the midst of several unexpected slowdowns in distribution and deployment of the vaccine, we were bombarded with other new treatment possibilities almost daily . These included the FDA’s aim to use convalescent plasma and the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid dexamethasone, often used to treat conditions like asthma.

    Although other governments may not have snappy, Star Trek-sounding monikers for their vaccine-production efforts, its clear that scientists around the globe, from those employed by biotech and pharmaceutical companies to those staffing research universities like Oxford, have been working around the clock to develop viable vaccines in record time. According to the University of Michigans Michigan Medicine branch, more than 100 potential vaccine candidates were winnowed down to just a handful of promising, trial-ready prospects.

    Recommended Reading: How Long Cvs Covid Test Results

    Without Ian Maclachlans Innovative Delivery System Moderna And Pfizer Couldnt Safely Get Their Mrna Vaccines Into Your Cells So Why Does Hardly Anyone Acknowledge The Canadian Biochemists Seminal Contributionsor Pay A Dime In Royalties

    In the summer of 2020, as the pandemic raged, infecting more than 200,000 people a day across the globe, Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla and BioNTech CEO Uur ahin boarded an executive jet en route to the hilly countryside of Klosterneuburg, Austria. Their destination: a small manufacturing facility located on the west bank of the Danube River called Polymun Scientific Immunbiologische Forschung. Bourla and ahin were on a mission to get the company to manufacture as many lipid nanoparticles as possible for their new Covid-19 vaccine, which was on a fast track to receive emergency authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.;

    The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine had been engineered with messenger RNA technology that instructs the bodys immune system to combat the coronavirus. But to get it safely into human cells, the mRNA needed to be wrapped in microscopic fragments of fat known as lipids. The Austrian manufacturing plant was one of the few places on earth that made the required lipid nanoparticles, and Bourla insisted ahin go with him personally to press their case.;

    The whole mRNA platform is not how to build an mRNA molecule; thats the easy thing, Bourla says. It is how to make sure the mRNA molecule will go into your cells and give the instructions.;

    I look at the news, and 50% of it is vaccinesits everywhereand I have no doubt the vaccines are using the technology we developed.;

    James MacDonald/Bloomberg

    Rebecca Miller for Forbes


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