Who Should Be Vaccinated First
Where COVID-19 vaccine supplies are limited, priority should go to health workers at high risk of exposure and older people.
The vaccine is not recommended for people younger than 18 years of age. Safety and immunogenicity data for under-18s are currently being generated but until such data are sufficiently available and can be further reviewed, vaccination of individuals in this age group is not recommended.
Concerns Over Mrna Vaccine
According to Dr. Kenyon, misinformation surrounding mRNA vaccines stems from a concern that the vaccine infects people with the virus.
Nobody is getting infected with a COVID-19 vaccine. It is only the surface protein that would be replicated because we have given you the messenger RNA. It is not the entire virus, he explained.
One misconception is that an mRNA vaccine would not be useful when the virus mutates.
A July 2020 study that appears in Frontiers in Microbiology confirms that the virus mutates. After analyzing 48,635 samples of SARS-CoV-2, the researchers identified an average of 7.23 mutations per sample.
While mutations are a certainty, Dr. Sun said that this should not be a cause for alarm.
There has been an estimated 250,000 variants or strains of SARS-CoV-2 sequenced in the lab. For the most part, the virus has a low mutation rate compared to the mutation rate of the influenza virus , Dr. Sun explained. The spike protein is important for the ability of the virus to infect humans cells. I think it would not mutate enough for the vaccines to be ineffective.
Another concern is whether natural immunity would be more effective than a vaccine. However, a CDC study from November 2021 found that COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are about five times more effective in preventing hospitalization than a previous infection.
Dr. Kenyon said that before any clinical trial can start, a data monitoring and safety board must approve a study protocol.
How Does The Immune System Respond To Nasal Spray Vaccines Vs Injectable Vaccines
You may be wondering why you get a vaccine shot in your arm. Thats because it works best if its injected into a muscle instead of under the skin.
Once inside the muscle, the vaccine triggers an immune response. Immune cells then travel to the arm muscle. When this happens, you might experience arm pain, swelling, and redness after your shot.
The immune response caused by the shot creates antibodies and other memory cells in your blood and tissues. Injectable vaccines result in a type of antibody thought to protect your lower respiratory tract . Nasal spray vaccines result in this type of protection, too.
The difference from an injectable vaccine is that nasal spray vaccines also trigger higher antibody levels in your nasal tissue. The type of antibody created in your nasal tissue is thought to protect your upper respiratory tract . This is important because your nose is an important line of defense against a respiratory infection.
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The Fdas Argument: 500 Pages Per Month
The FDA argued in the joint report that the plaintiffs request involves more than 329,000 pages and that reviewing and redacting these records will be a time-consuming process. The FDA proposed a schedule to process and release 500 pages a month, a rate that they argued is consistent with FOIA request processing schedules.
The FDA wrote:
Reviewing and redacting records for exempt information is a time-consuming process that often requires government information specialists to review each page line-by-line. When a party requests a large amount of records, like Plaintiff did here, courts typically set a schedule whereby the processing and production of the non-exempt portions of records is made on a rolling basis.
FDA has assessed that there are more than 329,000 pages potentially responsive to Plaintiffs FOIA request. FDA proposes to work through the list of documents that Plaintiff requested FDA prioritize for production in order of priority and process and release the non-exempt portions of those records to Plaintiff on a rolling basis. FDA proposes to process and produce the non-exempt portions of responsive records at a rate of 500 pages per month. This rate is consistent with processing schedules entered by courts across the country in FOIA cases.
What Are The Promising Vaccines For Covid
Around the world, there are currently nearly 150 different COVID-19 vaccines in various stages of testing and development: phase 1 , phase 2 , and phase 3 trials in humans.
In the US, the FDA has granted full approval to the Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, and emergency use authorization to the Moderna mRNA vaccine and the Johnson & Johnson adenovirus vaccine.
Two other vaccine approaches are also showing promise.
A central question for COVID-19 vaccines will be how long protection might last.
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Its Highly Unlikely Vaccines Will Be Totally Ineffective Against Omicron Doctor Says
Moderna submitted data from clinical trials involving 12- to 17-year-olds, but in November the FDA said it needed more time to review that data. The company also released statements recently saying that its two-dose mRNA vaccine is safe and effective in 6- to 11-year-olds. And Moderna trials involving kids 6 months and up are ongoing.
When it comes to the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine, the company told TODAY in a statement that it “has initiated its phase 2/3 HORIZON 2 clinical trial in healthy adolescents from 12 to 17 years with the goal of obtaining valuable insights into the safety and immune responses of our vaccine in this critical group.” The company did not share information about trials in younger age groups.
As exciting as all that is, the reality is that many parents of young kids are still anxiously awaiting their turn to get their children vaccinated. Here’s the latest on the status of ongoing pediatric COVID-19 vaccine trials in the U.S. and more on the careful work that goes into developing vaccines for young kids.
Inactivated Or Attenuated Coronavirus Vaccines
Vaccines created from weakened coronaviruses or coronaviruses that have been killed with chemicals.
Efficacy:72.8%Along with their Beijing Institute vaccine, Sinopharm also tested an inactivated virus vaccine developed by the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products. The Phase 1/2 trial showed that the vaccine produced antibodies in volunteers, some of whom experienced fevers and other side effects. Sinopharm then launched a global Phase 3 trial of the Wuhan vaccine. In December, Peru briefly paused their trial to investigate neurological problems that one volunteer experienced, but determined that it had nothing to do with the vaccines. On Feb. 25, China announced the approval of the Wuhan vaccine for general use. In May, the vaccine researchers the results of the Phase 3 trial, demonstrating that the vaccine has an efficacy of 72.8 percent.Approved for use in:China.Limited use in: United Arab Emirates.Updated May 29
PHASE 2PHASE 3COMBINED PHASESOn March 22, 2021, Japans KM Biologicsannounced that it had begun a Phase 1/2 trial of its inactivated vaccine candidate, called KD-414. The company has also played a part in manufacturing AstraZenecas vaccine. KM Biologics registered a Phase 2/3 trial in Japan for its vaccine on Oct. 22.Updated Dec. 3
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What Are Breakthrough Infections And Why Do They Happen
A breakthrough infection is one that occurs after full vaccination.
In an article published in MMWR, the CDC reported 10,262 breakthrough infections through the end of April 2021. By that point, more than 100 million Americans had received the COVID-19 vaccine.
The vast majority of breakthrough infections were asymptomatic, mild, or moderate. About 1,000 people with breakthrough infections were hospitalized, and 160 died, though the hospitalizations and deaths were not always related to COVID-19.
These numbers tell us that the vaccines are doing a good job preventing infection and severe illness. None of the vaccines were 100% effective in clinical trials, so a small number of breakthrough infections was expected.
What About Moderna And Johnson & Johnson
Only adults 18 and older are eligible to receive Modernas two-dose mRNA vaccine and the one-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine in the United States. Moderna has filed an EUA application to be able to vaccinate adolescents 12-17. A representative of Moderna said in an email that the company is delaying filing a request for emergency use authorization for 6-to-11-year-olds while the FDA reviews the 12-to-17 data.
An emailed statement from Johnson & Johnson said Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials were underway in adolescents 12 to 17.
Meanwhile, the CDC has recommended that most eligible Americans opt for one of the mRNA vaccines instead of the Johnson & Johnson shot.
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When Will Kids Covid Vaccines Be Available
Pfizer expects to have safety and efficacy data on five- to 11-year-olds by the end of the month, but federal authorities must still review it
When Tonya Zerkle, a mom in Cincinnati, Ohio, found out that Ontario, Canada was vaccinating any children who turn 12 by the end of the year, she wasted no time. After confirming with Canadian officials that her American 11-year-old was eligible and checking with border authorities on requirements to visit, she and her family headed for the border on a Sunday morning in late August for one dose of the Pfizer vaccine and one poutine lunch on the way back.
If I have a way to protect my kid, Im going to take it, says Zerkle, who has worried about her daughter attending a school where masks are only optional. But the irony was not lost on me that I was literally crossing the border to do something to protect my child. She also recognizes that shes fortunate. Not a lot of families might be able to do this, she adds.
Plenty of parents have alreadyliedabouttheir preteens age to get a COVID vaccine before the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorizes one for children under age 12. Millions of other parents across the country continue to wake up each day with the same question: When will a vaccine for kids be available?
People are working as hard as they can, as fast as they can to get this data out, and the FDA has promised to review it as quickly as possible. So will be here soon, Talaat says.
Reporting A Possible Serious Reaction
Contact your health care provider if you experience:
- a side effect following vaccination with a COVID-19 vaccine
- any persistent, new or worsening symptoms
Health care providers must report possible reactions following vaccination to their local public health authority. The public health authority then reports them to the Public Health Agency of Canada.
Reported allergic reactions and side effects to COVID-19 vaccines are published weekly in our Reported side effects following COVID-19 vaccination report.
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How Well Do The Covid
Anyone who gets COVID-19 can become seriously ill or have long-term effects . The COVID-19 vaccines are the best way to protect yourself and others.
Research has shown the vaccines help:
- reduce your risk of getting seriously ill or dying from COVID-19
- reduce your risk of catching or spreading COVID-19
- protect against COVID-19 variants
The 1st dose should give you some protection from 3 or 4 weeks after you’ve had it. But you need 2 doses for stronger and longer-lasting protection.
There is a chance you might still get or spread COVID-19 even if you have a vaccine, so it’s important to follow advice about how to avoid catching and spreading COVID-19.
Answers To Key Questions About Covid
To help answer common vaccine questions, we consulted Dr. Stanley Perlman, a professor at the University of Iowas Carver College of Medicine and a member of the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations vaccine advisory committee, and Angela Shen, a visiting scientist with the Vaccine Education Center at Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia.
When can I get a vaccine?
Now, if you’re at least 12 years old.
All three vaccines are widely available for anyone over 18, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration said kids ages 12 to 18 can get Pfizer-BioNTech’s shot.
Where are COVID-19 vaccines available?
COVID-19 vaccines are now available in a variety of locations, including pharmacies, hospitals and public clinics. To find an appointment in your area, you can search VaccineFinder.org, which collects data directly from government agencies.
How much does it cost to get vaccinated?
Nothing for the vaccine itself. The federal Operation Warp Speed program funded vaccine development with the intent that they be offered free to all Americans, regardless of insurance status.
The caveat: The facility where you get the vaccine may choose to charge something like an administrative fee.
Can I choose which vaccine I get?
Probably. Vaccine supply is now good enough that many clinics stock different types and allow people to choose which one they want.
What are the differences between the shots?
Can pregnant people get the vaccine?
Can kids get the vaccine?
Can kids get the vaccine?
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What Do I Need To Know About The Delta Variant
The Delta variant is different from previous SARS-CoV-2 variants that have made their way to the US. Its highly contagious and may cause more severe disease. It is also more likely than previous variants to be spread by vaccinated people experiencing breakthrough infections.
Evidence presented to the CDC showed the Delta variant to be much more contagious than previous variants, with a risk of transmission similar to chickenpox. It also appears that people who are infected can spread the virus for longer periods of time.
In addition, people who are vaccinated and then get infected can also spread the virus to others, perhaps to the same extent as those who are unvaccinated. However, people with breakthrough infections appear to be contagious for a shorter period of time.
Finally, international studies point to the Delta variant being more likely to cause severe disease.
The good news is that while vaccination may be less effective at preventing infection and spread of the Delta variant, it is still highly protective against severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Get the COVID-19 vaccine if you have not already done so.
Why Is The Cdc Recommending One Of The Mrna Covid
In December 2021, the CDC stated a preference for one of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines over Johnson & Johnsons adenovirus COVID-19 vaccine. The CDC made the decision because of growing evidence that Johnson & Johnsons vaccine increases the risk of blood clots. Although very rare, this problem can be serious and even lead to death.
The blood clots in question involve blood vessels in the brain, lungs, abdomen, and legs, and are accompanied by low levels of blood platelets. This combination is referred to as thrombosis and thrombocytopenia syndrome, or TTS, an abbreviation of the medical terms for the two conditions.
Since the FDA granted emergency use authorization for the Johnson & Johnson vaccine in late February 2021, nearly 17 million doses of the one-dose vaccine have been given. A total of 54 cases of TTS, including nine deaths, were reported in people who received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine through August 31, 2021. TTS has been seen in men and women across age ranges, but the highest risk was seen in women ages 30 to 49 years.
The Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine will still be available in the US to people who cannot or do not want to get an mRNA vaccine. The vaccines label and fact sheet list symptoms of TTS, and urge anyone who experiences them after receiving the Johnson & Johnson vaccine to seek immediate medical attention.
- severe or persistent headache
- severe pain in your abdomen
- leg swelling
- tiny red spots under the skin
- new or easy bruising.
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How Pediatricians Are Approaching Conversations With Parents
The conversations with parents do seem to have an impact, according to those on the frontline.
Dr. Jacob Kilgore is a pediatric infectious disease specialist with Marshall Health in Huntington, West Virginia. Only 41.5% of the eligible population of the state is fully vaccinated.
While there are a number of reasons for the low rate, Kilgore says one of the barriers is simply a lack of easy access to healthcare in some areas outside large cities.
Why Are Some People Hesitant About Getting A Covid Vaccine
Its natural to want to make an informed decision about the COVID-19 vaccine. Fortunately, the safety of the vaccine seen in the clinical trials has been verified by the real-world results. And in August 2021, the FDA granted full approval to the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine for use in people ages 16 years and older. The transition from emergency use authorization status to full licensure was based on additional data and longer follow-up showing that the vaccine met certain safety, effectiveness, and manufacturing quality standards.
Warp speed? Yes, the speed with which the COVID-19 vaccines were developed was incredibly fast. But the science and technology to make it happen came after decades of research.
COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are new, but scientists have been studying mRNA for many years. They cannot change your DNA. The mRNA sends a message to the bodys cells to make only a specific protein, not a virus, that stimulates the immune system to give you protection. Experts predict that most vaccines in the future will use mRNA technology.
If you still have doubts about the vaccine, we recommend this short video produced by the Black Womens Health Imperative.
Some communities, particularly communities of color, may have historical reasons to doubt the health care system. But these communities have also been among the hardest hit by this pandemic, and like all of us, have a lot to gain from vaccination.
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