Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 8:27 pm
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Where Is Covid Vaccine Made

Scotus Weighs Bidens Workplace Vaccine Mandate

Preparations Made For Coronavirus Vaccine

Though widespread vaccination among health care workers is the best solution, if a mandate isnt allowed, the administration can entice health care operators with other incentives. For example, a Medicare health care quality measurement program called the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System is almost universally seen as more burdensome than productive in improving the quality of health care for patients. A recent study found that many medical practices have had to hire more full-time staff and cut back on direct patient care to fulfill reporting requirements that generally consist of little more than clicking boxes inside the electronic health record. The program has not resulted in better care and might even result in worse care for marginalized populations. Granting practices an exemption from that requirement, even temporarily, in exchange for higher vaccination rates would most likely be met with incredible support.

A more controversial but more consequential action could be establishing the right of patients to demand a vaccinated healthcare worker.

Even if both the OSHA and CMS requirements survive, the proverbial patient is still on life support. The furor against vaccine mandates and requirements persists, so efforts to increase vaccination rates in a nonpunitive way continue to be important. Employing incentives that lift the burdens of regulation and provide relief in some non-Covid related workplace requirements could truly be the prescription we need.

Pull Dna From Cold Storage

A scientist removes vials of DNA from the master cell bank, the source of every batch of Pfizers Covid-19 vaccine. The vials are kept at 150°C or below, and contain small rings of DNA called plasmids.



spike proteins

Each plasmid contains a coronavirus gene, the genetic instructions for a human cell to build coronavirus proteins and trigger an immune response to the virus.

Scientists thaw the plasmids and modify a batch of E. coli bacteria to take the plasmids inside their cells.

E. coli

A single vial can eventually produce up to 50 million doses of the vaccine.


Pack And Ship The Finished Vaccine

After weeks of testing, the vaccine is ready to ship. Workers pull trays from the freezers and pack them in shipping boxes with temperature and location sensors. The minimum order is one tray of 195 vials, and a box holds up to five trays.

Each box contains 45 pounds of dry ice so much that Pfizers Kalamazoo facility now makes dry ice on site. Pfizer is also evaluating different formulations of the vaccine, including freeze-dried and ready-to-use versions that would not require ultracold storage.

Commercial production of the vaccine began in September. As of April 22, the plant had delivered more than 150 million vaccine doses to the United States. Pfizer expects to deliver 220 million doses by the end of May, and 300 million by mid-July.


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Fda Evaluation Of Safety And Effectiveness Data For Approval For 16 Years Of Age And Older

The first EUA, issued Dec. 11, for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for individuals 16 years of age and older was based on safety and effectiveness data from a randomized, controlled, blinded ongoing clinical trial of thousands of individuals.

To support the FDAs approval decision today, the FDA reviewed updated data from the clinical trial which supported the EUA and included a longer duration of follow-up in a larger clinical trial population.

Specifically, in the FDAs review for approval, the agency analyzed effectiveness data from approximately 20,000 vaccine and 20,000 placebo recipients ages 16 and older who did not have evidence of the COVID-19 virus infection within a week of receiving the second dose. The safety of Comirnaty was evaluated in approximately 22,000 people who received the vaccine and 22,000 people who received a placebo 16 years of age and older.

Based on results from the clinical trial, the vaccine was 91% effective in preventing COVID-19 disease.

More than half of the clinical trial participants were followed for safety outcomes for at least four months after the second dose. Overall, approximately 12,000 recipients have been followed for at least 6 months.

Myths And Facts About Covid

Vatican permits use of COVID

CDC has updated its recommendations for COVID-19 vaccines with a preference for people to receive an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine . Read CDCs media statement.

Accurate vaccine information is critical and can help stop common myths and rumors. It can be difficult to know which sources of information you can trust. Learn more about finding credible vaccine information.

Below are myths and facts about COVID-19 vaccination.

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What Is Covid Vaccine Made Of Scientist Behind Pfizer And Moderna Vaccine Technology Explains

With Covid-19 vaccines widely available, the scientist behind experimental technology used by pharmaceutical companies Pfizer and Moderna has explained what was baked into the first batch off the production line.

Dr Drew Weissman, a professor in the University of Pennsylvanias Perelman School of Medicine, is one of the pioneers of the vaccine formula called Messenger RNA . He collaborated with Pfizer and BioNTech on their version of the vaccine.

He told The Independent that the vaccine, unlike any that has been developed previously, contains a new technology that delivers genetic code or directions that instructs the body to create a copy of the Covid-19 virus spike protein, which prompts an immune response.

The mRNA is produced by an enzyme that copies DNA that contains the protein to be produced, Mr Weissman said.

Four lipids are used to create the lipid nanoparticle that self-assemble with the mRNA. They are all created synthetically. The cationic lipid, which is the main function component is proprietary to companies.

Dr Weissman explains the Covid-19 vaccines contain only the synthetically created mRNA genetic code and four lipids, known as lipid nanoparticles, in contrast to traditional vaccines that are created within living cells and contain components of a virus.

None of this is made in mammalian cell lines, he said.

They also contain preservatives like 2-phenoxyethanol and stabilisers like sugars , amino acids , gelatin, or proteins .

From Pfizer To Moderna: Who’s Making Billions From Covid

The companies in line for the biggest gains and the shareholders who have already made fortunes

The arrival of Covid-19 vaccines promises a return to more normal life and has created a global market worth tens of billions of dollars in annual sales for some pharmaceutical companies.

Among the biggest winners will be Moderna and Pfizer two very different US pharma firms which are both charging more than $30 per person for the protection of their two-dose vaccines. While Moderna was founded just 11 years ago, has never made a profit and employed just 830 staff pre-pandemic, Pfizer traces its roots back to 1849, made a net profit of $9.6bn last year and employs nearly 80,000 staff.

But other drugmakers, such as the British-Swedish AstraZeneca and the US pharma Johnson & Johnson, have pledged to provide their vaccines on a not-for-profit basis until the pandemic comes to an end.

Whether the market remains a money-spinner in the future depends on whether the vaccines become the type that need just a one-off shot as for measles or if regular vaccinations will be required, such as for flu. But in the immediate future, there are big financial returns up for grabs.

Here, we look at who is in line for the biggest gains and which shareholders have already made fortunes.

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Vaccine Review Approval And Monitoring

Health Canada’s independent drug review process is recognized around the world for its high standards and rigor. Our decisions are based only on scientific and medical evidence showing that vaccines are safe and effective. The benefits must also outweigh any risks.

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine was authorized for use in Canada under the Interim Order respecting the importation, sale and advertising of drugs for use in relation to COVID-19. The interim order expired on September 16, 2021. On this date, Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty®transitioned to an authorization under the Food and Drug Regulations.

Find detailed technical information such as the product monograph and the regulatory decision summary:

As COVID-19 vaccines are administered across Canada, our safety monitoring is ongoing. The Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, and provincial and territorial health authorities continue to:

  • monitor the use of all COVID-19 vaccines closely
  • examine and assess any new safety concerns

What Is China’s Claim

How was the COVID-19 vaccine made, and how do we know its safe? | NHS

A video posted on social media by the Chinese Communist Party’s youth league claims that over half the world’s vaccines have come from China.

It was posted on Weibo – the Chinese version of Twitter – at the end of September, just as the number of Covid vaccines administered globally had passed six billion .

So, was China responsible for producing more than three billion of these – both for domestic use and for export?

However, we have no means of verifying China’s own figure for how many doses have been administered within the country.

China is also a leading exporter of vaccines – both via commercial partnerships and donations.

Some of these exports are in the form of bulk vaccine components which are processed and packaged in the destination countries.

The Chinese foreign ministry stated that “China has provided 1.2 billion doses of finished and bulk vaccines to more than 100 countries and international organisations”.

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How Pfizer Makes Its Covid

By Emma Cott, Elliot deBruyn and Jonathan CorumApril 28, 2021

  • 308

Inside this facility in Chesterfield, Missouri, trillions of bacteria are producing tiny loops of DNA containing coronavirus genes the raw material for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.

Its the start of a complex manufacturing and testing process that takes 60 days and involves Pfizer facilities in three states. The result will be millions of doses of the vaccine, frozen and ready to ship.


How Is The Covid

The COVID-19 vaccines currently available in the U.S. include two mRNA vaccines and one adenovirus-vector vaccine:

  • mRNA vaccines â These types of vaccines provide the code, or blueprint, for making viral proteins. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines provide the blueprint for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. After getting the shot, the vaccinated personâs dendritic cells near the injection site make the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The immune system recognizes the protein as foreign and responds to remove it. In the process, the body creates a memory immune response, which will quickly activate in the future if the person is exposed to COVID-19 in the community. Watch this animation to see how the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine works. Two COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are currently available.
  • Pfizerâs vaccine â Two doses administered as a shot intramuscularly and separated by 21 days.
  • Modernaâs vaccine â Two doses administered as a shot intramuscularly and separated by 28 days.
  • Some individuals are recommended to get a third dose of mRNA vaccine. Talk to your healthcare provider if you are uncertain about whether you need this additional dose.

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Myth: The Mrna Vaccine Is Not Considered A Vaccine

FACT: mRNA vaccines, such as Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna, work differently than other types of vaccines, but they still trigger an immune response inside your body.

This type of vaccine is new, but research and development on it has been underway for decades.

The mRNA vaccines do not contain any live virus. Instead, they work by teaching our cells to make a harmless piece of a spike protein, which is found on the surface of the virus that causes COVID-19. After making the protein piece, cells display it on their surface. Our immune system then recognizes that it does not belong there and responds to get rid of it. When an immune response begins, antibodies are produced, creating the same response that happens in a natural infection.

In contrast to mRNA vaccines, many other vaccines use a piece of, or weakened version of, the germ that the vaccine protects against. This is how the measles and flu vaccines work. When a weakened or small part of the virus is introduced to your body, you make antibodies to help protect against future infection.

Learn more about how mRNA COVID-19 vaccines work.

A Simple Breakdown Of The Ingredients In The Covid Vaccines

Pakistan airlifts China

Three COVID-19 vaccines have been granted Emergency Use Authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration since mid-December 2020. Prior to authorization by the FDA, these vaccines underwent the same rigorous safety and effectiveness standards as all other vaccines. Quickly, vaccine distribution began, starting with health care professionals on the frontlines of patient care.

Once available to the broader public, its critical that a high percentage of the population receive the vaccine in order to achieve herd immunity against COVID-19. Herd immunity occurs when most of a population is immune to an infectious disease and provides indirect protection to those who are not immune to the disease.

There have been many rumors flying around on the internet about whats in the vaccine. Some rumors even suggested that the vaccines contain gluten, wheat, eggs and even bee venom! All of that is simply, untrue.

If youre among the many wondering whats actually in it? and, is it safe to receive the injection?, keep reading.

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So How Do You Make These Vaccines

It depends on the platform. For viral-vectored vaccines, you take some of your harmless cold virus after you have added the spike protein DNA to it and grow it in a cell culture. Although the virus has been altered so it cant reproduce in the body, it can still replicate in the specially designed cells in this cell culture.

Youll then have this bulking up of the virus over the course of a few days, anywhere from four litres of cell culture up to maybe 20, 30 litres. Really high-scale production can be carried out in steel tanks the manufacturing environment can look a bit similar to a super-clean, sterile brewery. You have to make sure that your cells are in the best environment possible for them to live and to allow the virus to grow. This requires monitoring many environmental factors in and around the cell culture temperature, oxygen and CO levels, acidity and so on.

You end up with this liquid that is full of the virus that youre interested in. But its also full of materials that you dont want. So then you have what we call downstream processing, where youre purifying the virus vaccine away from all of the other components that youre not interested in.

That downstream process is very important and is highly controlled and evaluated. It involves a lot of filtration and chromatography. At the end you have to have a very safe sterile product that contains only what you want.

Reporting A Possible Serious Reaction

Contact your health care provider if you experience:

  • a side effect following vaccination with a COVID-19 vaccine
  • any persistent, new or worsening symptoms

Health care providers must report possible reactions following vaccination to their local public health authority. The public health authority then reports them to the Public Health Agency of Canada.

Reported allergic reactions and side effects to COVID-19 vaccines are published weekly in our Reported side effects following COVID-19 vaccination report.

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Over A Decade Of Research To Innovate Mrna As A ‘bioplatform’

One of the reasons Moderna’s mRNA Covid vaccine development moved so quickly is because scientists had been working with mRNA for years.

“Messenger RNA technologies have been in development from a basic science perspective for over 15 years,”Kizzmekia Corbet, the scientific lead for the Coronavirus Vaccines & Immunopathogenesis Team at NIH, who helped make the vaccine possible, told the NIH Record.

And Moderna has been working with mRNA technology “since its inception in 2010 for myriad therapeutic areas,” including cancer therapies, Afeyan tells CNBC Make It , and with clinical development of mRNA-based antiviral vaccines since 2015.

What Moderna did over many of those years was develop mRNA as what scientists call a bioplatform, which allows for speedier vaccine development. Bioplatforms are systems that can easily be scaled and tailored for many different diseases.

Traditionally, developing any vaccine essentially has been a bespoke effort.

“The benefits of a bioplatform is the ability to quickly redeploy the platform once established and refined in the case of Moderna’s mRNA platform, to create and test new vaccines based on new viral sequences,” Afeyan tells CNBC Make It .

All of this makes mRNA vaccines virtually programable. Corbet and Bancel describe the process as “plug and play.”

Package Freeze And Test

Coronavirus: Unproven COVID-19 vaccine made available in China

The filled vials are inspected again, and then labeled and packed into pizza boxes, small plastic trays that hold 195 vials each.

The trays are bundled in stacks of five and loaded into one of 350 industrial freezers. Each freezer holds 300 trays.

It takes a couple of days for the vaccine to reach the 70°C required for long-term storage, and each freezer is tested to ensure that every shelf can maintain that ultracold temperature.

Once frozen, the vials of vaccine are held for four weeks of testing. Samples are sent back to the Andover facility that produced the mRNA, and to the Chesterfield site that provided the DNA templates.



Pfizer currently operates on a 60-day timeline from start to finish, and more than half of that time is dedicated to testing.


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Approval Signifies Key Achievement For Public Health

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first COVID-19 vaccine. The vaccine has been known as the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine, and will now be marketed as Comirnaty , for the prevention of COVID-19 disease in individuals 16 years of age and older. The vaccine also continues to be available under emergency use authorization , including for individuals 12 through 15 years of age and for the administration of a third dose in certain immunocompromised individuals.

The FDAs approval of this vaccine is a milestone as we continue to battle the COVID-19 pandemic. While this and other vaccines have met the FDAs rigorous, scientific standards for emergency use authorization, as the first FDA-approved COVID-19 vaccine, the public can be very confident that this vaccine meets the high standards for safety, effectiveness, and manufacturing quality the FDA requires of an approved product, said Acting FDA Commissioner Janet Woodcock, M.D. While millions of people have already safely received COVID-19 vaccines, we recognize that for some, the FDA approval of a vaccine may now instill additional confidence to get vaccinated. Todays milestone puts us one step closer to altering the course of this pandemic in the U.S.

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