If Youve Tested Positive
If you’ve tested positive for COVID-19, you must isolate at home and away from others, even if you dont have any symptoms.
If you develop symptoms during your isolation period:
- continue isolating and
- follow directions provided by your local public health authority or health care provider
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Herd Immunity: An Explanation
Before the COVID-19 pandemic, the term herd immunity was possibly something you only heard about during flu season or during reports of upticks in measles casesif at all.
But COVID-19 has brought that conceptwhen an infectious disease is less likely to spread because enough people have immunity either through exposure or vaccinationto the front of our minds. Now that we have effective coronavirus vaccines, many are wondering if and when we will reach herd immunity with COVID-19.
Manisha Juthani, MD, and other Yale experts explain herd immunity, why it matters, and what needs to happen to get there.
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What Is The Outlook For People With Guillain
The symptoms of GBS usually become most severe within four weeks of symptom onset, and then plateau. The majority of people recover, though the process may take weeks, months, or even years. Fortunately, most people who develop GBS are eventually able to return to their usual everyday and work-related activities without any significant residual physical impairment.
In some cases, even after recovery people may continue to experience weakness, pain, or fatigue, and require ongoing care. GBS is usually a once in a life-time occurrence, but a small number of people may experience a relapse.
Does Vitamin D Protect Against Covid
There is no evidence that taking high-dose vitamin D protects you against getting infected with this coronavirus. In addition, if you are infected, it does not prevent a more severe illness.
However, most studies looking at people at people hospitalized with COVID-19 found that having an abnormally low vitamin D blood level was associated with a worse outcome, including death, compared to patients with a normal blood level. These studies are observational only, meaning they only show a link between low vitamin D levels and a higher risk of severe illness. This does not mean that the low level caused the worse outcome.
The best advice regarding COVID-19 is similar to what is recommended to maintain bone health making sure you get enough vitamin D to meet standard requirements.
Our bodies make vitamin D when exposed to sunshine. Five to 10 minutes of sun exposure on some or most days of the week to the arms, legs, or back without sunscreen will enable you to make enough of the vitamin. Good food sources of vitamin D include fatty fish , foods fortified with vitamin D , cheese, and egg yolks.
The recommended dietary dose of vitamin D is 600 IU each day for adults 70 and younger, and 800 IU each day for adults over 70. For adults, the risk of harmful effects increases above 4,000 IU per day.
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Mixing Of Cohorts At Lunch And Recess Leading To Covid
Ottawa’s medical officer of health suggests the mixing of cohorts at lunch and recess in schools is leading to new cases of COVID-19 in children.
Ottawa Public Health closed two schools this week due to COVID-19 cases, while there are nine current outbreaks in elementary schools.
On Tuesday, St. Benedict Elementary School was closed due to “evidence of the spread of COVID-19 to several cohorts in the school.” Cases were first identified in kindergarten cohorts. One parent tells CTV News Ottawa a positive test result was reported in her child’s Grade 4 class.
On Thursday, École élémentaire catholique Marius-Barbeau was closed due to evidence of the virus spreading to several different cohorts.
“What we are seeing is that there’s more mixing of students than there was last year. When I say mixing of students, I mean the groups that children and youth are part of are called cohorts and now those cohorts are sometimes mixing at recess or mixing at lunch, and this is leading to greater exposures,” said Dr. Vera Etches on Friday.
“We’re talking with the school boards about how to mitigate that, I think there’s some more things that can be done to reduce the number of close contacts that people have.”
Fifty-eight schools have at least one active case of COVID-19 in Ottawa.
Merck: Growth Income And Value
Merck has tacked on over $20 billion in market capitalization since reporting molnupiravir’s top-line data less than five days ago. Even so, the big pharma’s stock may still be undervalued. Thanks to its top-selling cancer drug Keytruda and now this major foray into COVID-19 with molnupiravir, Merck’s shares might be trading at less than 3.5 times 2022 sales. That’s not an outrageously low valuation, but it also isn’t a valuation that screams “overvalued.” There are a surfeit of dividend-paying healthcare stocks, after all, that sport forward-looking price-to-sales ratios of well over five.
In addition, Merck offers investors a top-notch shareholder rewards program. At present, the healthcare giant yields an annualized dividend of 3.2%, which is about average within its big pharma peer group. Last May, the company also restarted its share repurchase program, which was previously suspended due to COVID-19. During its last quarterly report, Merck noted that it had approximately $5.6 billion remaining under its repurchase authorization program.
What’s the downside? While this blue chip pharma stock will still probably perform well in 2022 and beyond, the bad news is that its shares have already jumped quite a bit on the molnupiravir catalyst. The drug isn’t even approved yet, and the market has already richly rewarded Merck for this encouraging result. In other words, this top pharma stock doesn’t come across as the best pure-play COVID-19 pill stock — at least not anymore.
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What’s New At This Update
NICE updates COVID-19 rapid guideline
The UKs National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has updated its COVID-19 rapid guideline to include new recommendations on noninvasive respiratory support. NICE recommends offering continuous positive airway pressure to patients with hypoxemia that is not responding to supplemental oxygen, provided that escalation to invasive mechanical ventilation would be an option but it is not immediately needed, or it is agreed that respiratory support should not be escalated beyond CPAP.
NICE has also updated its existing recommendations on the use of heparins. The guideline now recommends a standard prophylactic dose of a low molecular weight heparin in patients who require low-flow or high-flow oxygen, CPAP, noninvasive ventilation, or invasive mechanical ventilation, and who do not have an increased bleeding risk. A treatment dose may be considered in those who require low-flow oxygen and who do not have an increased bleeding risk . Intermediate or treatment doses are recommended only as part of a clinical trial in those receiving high-flow oxygen, CPAP, noninvasive ventilation, or invasive mechanical ventilation.
See the Treatment algorithm section for more information.
: Number of COVID-19 cases reported weekly by WHO Region, and global deaths, as of 12 September 2021World Health Organization .
Original source of updateexternal link opens in a new window
Everyone Should Still Get Vaccinated
While the J& J vaccine pause has been lifted, some people might still be worried. But the United States has authorized use of two other safe and highly effective COVID vaccines, which use a completely different platform, said Dr. Fryhofer. Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines are completely different and more than 180 million doses of mRNA COVID vaccines have been administered.
Additionally, there have been no reports of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis combined with thrombocytopenia in patients who have received mRNA vaccines by Pfizer or Moderna, she said, emphasizing that this rare, but deadly combination of blood clots and low platelets has not been seen with Pfizer and Moderna mRNA COVID vaccines.
Fortunately, based on current projections, the supply of both of these mRNA vaccines is fairly high and looks stable for at least the near future, said Dr. Fryhofer, adding that we need to encourage our patients to get vaccinated. This is the only way we can end this pandemic.
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Number Of Doses/amounts Of Vaccine Per Dose
Both the Moderna and the Pfizer vaccines require two shots: a priming dose, followed by a booster shot. The interval between Moderna doses is 28 days for the Pfizer vaccine, its 21 days.
Each dose of Pfizers contains 30 micrograms of vaccine. Moderna went with a much larger dose of vaccine, 100 micrograms. It means the company is using a little more than three times as much vaccine per person as Pfizer is. And yet, they arent getting better results. The governments vaccine development program, formerly called Operation Warp Speed, has asked Moderna to test if it could lower the dosage of its vaccine without eroding the vaccines protection.
The J& J vaccine is, as mentioned, a single-dose vaccine. The company is also testing a two-dose regimen, with the two shots given eight weeks apart. The results from that 30,000-person trial arent expected until sometime in May.
J& J is also testing what happens to antibody responses when a person who received the single dose regimen receives a small booster shot quite a bit later, Johan Van Hoof, managing director of Janssen Vaccines revealed recently. Van Hoof didnt say how long the interval is between the single shot and the small booster, nor did he say when J& J expects results from that study.
What Is The Outlook For People Who Have Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis
CVST is a rare but potentially serious condition. Around 80% of people make a strong recovery, though some will continue to experience headache, vision problems, impaired motor control, speech problems, or other mild symptoms for weeks or months. For some, these symptoms may be permanent.
In general, the best outcomes are associated with early diagnosis and treatment. CVST recurs in about 2% to 4% of cases, and people who have experienced CVST are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism elsewhere in the body.
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How Well Do The Covid
Anyone who gets COVID-19 can become seriously ill or have long-term effects . The COVID-19 vaccines are the best way to protect yourself and others.
Research has shown the vaccines help:
- reduce your risk of getting seriously ill or dying from COVID-19
- reduce your risk of catching or spreading COVID-19
- protect against COVID-19 variants
The 1st dose should give you some protection from 3 or 4 weeks after you’ve had it. But you need 2 doses for stronger and longer-lasting protection.
There is a chance you might still get or spread COVID-19 even if you have a vaccine, so it’s important to follow advice about how to avoid catching and spreading COVID-19.
If Youre Sick Or Caring For Someone Whos Sick
If youre infected with COVID-19, even if not ill, follow the advice of your local public health authority for isolating at home. Most people with mild symptoms will recover on their own.
Adults and children with mild COVID-19 symptoms can stay at home while recovering. You dont need to go to the hospital.
If youre caring for someone at home who has or may have COVID-19, you should follow the appropriate precautions to prevent the spread of illness.
Learn more about:
The only way to confirm you have COVID-19 is through a laboratory test.
Follow the testing directions provided by your local public health authority if you have:
- been exposed to a person with COVID-19
People who are partially or fully vaccinated may still be asked to get a COVID-19 test.
If youve been tested and are waiting for the results, follow instructions:
- on how to quarantine or isolate and
- from your local public health authority
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What Helps What Doesn’t And What’s In The Pipeline
Most people who become ill with COVID-19 will be able to recover at home. Some of the same things you do to feel better if you have the flu getting enough rest, staying well hydrated, and taking medications to relieve fever and aches and pains also help with COVID-19.
Beyond that, the FDA has also authorized treatments that may be used for people who have been hospitalized with COVID-19 and other medications to curb the progression of COVID-19 in people who are not hospitalized but who are at risk for developing severe illness. Scientists continue working hard to develop other effective treatments.
Visit our for more information on coronavirus and COVID-19.
Info For Organizations And Vulnerable Albertans
- Caregivers support
Nearly one million Albertans act as caregivers for loved ones experiencing challenges related to illness, disability or aging. These caregivers need support too.
Caregivers can get psychosocial and other peer and community supports by calling the toll-free caregiver advisor line at or going online to caregiversalberta.ca.
- Expectant parents
Pregnant people have a higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19 than for those who are not pregnant.
Infected pregnant people may also have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth, compared to those who are pregnant without COVID-19.
Because of this, pregnant people are encouraged to get the COVID-19 vaccine when it’s available.
While there is limited evidence on how the COVID-19 vaccines may impact pregnant people, no adverse outcomes have been reported in clinical trials or in the vaccine roll out.
- For more information, read the AHS COVID-19 and Pregnancy guide.
We are working with the cities of Calgary and Edmonton to access local agencies and organizations to provide on-the-ground support to communities experiencing a high number of cases of COVID-19, compared to other areas across the province.
Residents in these communities may face barriers that could contribute to increased rates of COVID-19 transmission:
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The J& J one-dose vaccine was shown to be 66% protective against moderate to severe Covid infections overall from 28 days after injection, though there was variability based on geographic locations. The vaccine was 72% protective in the United States, 66% protective in South America, and 57% protective in South Africa.
But the vaccine was shown to be 85% protective against severe disease, with no differences across the eight countries or three regions in the study, nor across age groups among trial participants. And there were no hospitalizations or deaths in the vaccine arm of the trial after the 28-day period in which immunity developed.
The vaccines all appear to have lost some efficacy against infection with the Delta variant, which became dominant in the United States in summer 2021. It also appears that, while the vaccines are preventing many infections, vaccinated people who have breakthrough infections with the Delta variant can transmit the virus to others . Still, even with Delta, studies indicate that the vaccines have maintained their protectiveness against severe disease and death.
Organizations Get Different Types
Which vaccine a patient gets is dependent on the vaccination site. While one site may get Moderna, another might have Pfizer-BioNTech and then others might get J& Js COVID-19 vaccine.
My hospital has both the Moderna and the Pfizer, but the most important thing is whatever you get for the first dose, you have to get for the second dosetheres no mixing and matching, she said. You want to get the full series.
One big advantage of the Janssen vaccine is it only requires one dose, said Dr. Fryhofer. This means you dont have to come back for a second appointment. It also means only one set of vaccine side effects.
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Who Can Donate Plasma For Covid
In order to donate plasma, a person must meet several criteria. They have to have tested positive for COVID-19, recovered, have no symptoms for 14 days, currently test negative for COVID-19, and have high enough antibody levels in their plasma. A donor and patient must also have compatible blood types. Once plasma is donated, it is screened for other infectious diseases, such as HIV.
Each donor produces enough plasma to treat one to three patients. Donating plasma should not weaken the donor’s immune system nor make the donor more susceptible to getting reinfected with the virus.
We Might Compare Vaccines Head To Head
One way we can compare vaccine efficacy directly is to run head-to-head studies. These compare outcomes of people receiving one vaccine with those who receive another, in the same trial.
In these trials, how we measure efficacy, the study population and every other factor is the same. So we know any differences in outcomes must be down to differences between the vaccines.
If You Have A Pulse Oximeter
A pulse oximeter is a device that clips on your finger to check the level of oxygen in your blood.
Low levels of oxygen in your blood can be a sign you’re getting worse. A pulse oximeter can help you spot this before you feel breathless or have any other symptoms, so you can get help quickly.
You may be asked by a GP or healthcare professional to monitor your oxygen levels if you’re at a high risk of becoming seriously ill from COVID-19.
If you’re using a pulse oximeter at home, make sure it has a CE mark, UKCA mark or CE UKNI mark. This means that the device will work properly and is safe if used correctly.
If you’ve been given a pulse oximeter to use, watch an NHS YouTube video about how to use a pulse oximeter and when to get help.
It’s helpful to write down your readings, so you know what your oxygen level is when you first use the pulse oximeter and can spot if your level is going down. This can also help if you need to speak to a healthcare professional.
Speak to a GP or healthcare professional before using your pulse oximeter and tell them if you have any questions or concerns.