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Updated on June 23, 2022 1:32 am
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 1:32 am
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 1:32 am

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 1:32 am
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 1:32 am
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 1:32 am
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Which Covid 19 Vaccine Is Better

Both Of The Mrna Vaccines Available In The Us Are Highly Effective Against Severe Covid

Which COVID-19 vaccine is better? (spoiler, theyre all good)


#TeamPfizer and #TeamModerna are two of the captions often found next to selfies of proud newly vaccinated people on social media. And both groups do have a reason to celebrate as the two mRNA vaccines available in the US have proved to be highly effective against severe COVID-19.

Samuel Alonzo Dodge May 2, 2021

Research published in recent weeks, however, suggests the Moderna vaccines advantage in terms of long-term protection. In multiple independent studies, significantly lower antibody levels and more vaccine breakthrough infections have been detected in the Pfizer/BioNTech-vaccinated population. These could be explained by a myriad of slight differences between the vaccines themselves: their distinct dosages, the intervals between the two doses, or the composition of the lipid nanoparticles used in each one. For now, all possibilities remain open.

Breakthrough infections: advantage Moderna

On the surface, the vaccines are very similar. Both are composed of lipid nanoparticles filled with mRNA. When these mRNAs get into cells, the cells begin to produce the non-infectious viral spike proteins they code for, which then trigger an immune response that trains the immune system to recognize the viruss spiky exterior, so that it can launch a swift defense against the real virus.;

Myth: If Ive Already Had Covid

FACT: People who have gotten sick with COVID-19 may still benefit from getting vaccinated. Due to the severe health risks associated with COVID-19 and the fact that re-infection with COVID-19 is possible, people may be advised to get a COVID-19 vaccine even if they have been sick with COVID-19 before.

There is not enough information currently available to say if or for how long people are protected from getting COVID-19 after they have had it . Early evidence suggests natural immunity from COVID-19 may not last very long, but more studies are needed to better understand this. Several subjects in the Pfizer trial who were previously infected got vaccinated without ill effects. Some scientists believe the vaccine offers better protection for coronavirus than natural infection.

/9how Are The Vaccines Made

The four vaccines which have received emergency use authorisation in India are all made using different platforms.

While the Covishield jab vaccine is a viral vector vaccine that uses an adenovirus found in Chimpanzees, ChAD0x1, to deliver spike proteins and mount a tolerable immune response in response to a live virus. Covaxin, developed and manufactured in India uses a similar inactive viral strain. Both of them are made using traditional vaccine-build platforms.

Sputnik V uses a weakened strain of the common cold virus, adenovirus, which is then used to spike a tolerable immune response.

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Why Get The Covid

Sandra Trevino, LCSW, is a founding member of Yales Cultural Ambassadors programa 10-year-old organization whose mission is to broaden community participation in clinical trials at the Yale Center for Clinical Investigationand is doubling her efforts to help educate people about COVID-19 vaccines. ;

In December, the Kaiser Family Foundation released results of a survey in which more than one-quarter of Americans said they would probably or definitely not get the vaccine. Republicans, and rural and Black Americans were most hesitant, according to the survey.;

Its a great responsibility to make sure we continue to address the elephant in the room, which is mistrust with regard to the vaccines, says Trevino. ;

In a recent interview, she explained why shes encouraging everyone to get the COVID-19 vaccine and talked about her own familys experience with COVID-19.;

Myth: Researchers Rushed The Development Of The Covid

Wisconsin BBB says resist sharing COVID

FACT: Studies found that the two initial vaccines are both about 95% effective and reported no serious or life-threatening side effects. There are many reasons why the COVID-19 vaccines could be developed so quickly. Here are just a few:

  • The COVID-19 vaccines from Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna were created with a method that has been in development for years, so the companies could start the vaccine development process early in the pandemic.
  • China isolated and shared genetic information about COVID-19 promptly, so scientists could start working on vaccines.
  • The vaccine developers didnt skip any testing steps, but conducted some of the steps on an overlapping schedule to gather data faster.
  • Vaccine projects had plenty of resources, as governments invested in research and/or paid for vaccines in advance.
  • Some types of COVID-19 vaccines were created using messenger RNA , which allows a faster approach than the traditional way that vaccines are made.
  • Social media helped companies find and engage study volunteers, and many were willing to help with COVID-19 vaccine research.
  • Because COVID-19 is so contagious and widespread, it did not take long to see if the vaccine worked for the study volunteers who were vaccinated.
  • Companies began making vaccines early in the process even before FDA authorization so some supplies were ready when authorization occurred.

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What Happens In The Immune System When You Mix Vaccines For The Same Disease

The COVID-19 vaccines currently in use rely upon a variety of strategies to rouse the immune system.;

Those developed by Moderna and by Pfizer and BioNTech are mRNA vaccines, which include snippets of genetic material that code for the spike-shaped protein on the surface of SARS-CoV-2. Others, including the shots developed by Johnson & Johnson and by the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca, are known as viral vector vaccines. In these shots, a different sort of virus is genetically engineered to ferry the coronavirus genes. Still others in use outside the U.S. contain bits of spike protein or inactivated versions of the virus.;

A pairing of two different types of vaccines will probably be more effective than a combination of two different vaccines that use the same basic strategy, Fuller says. We think thatsome are just better at triggering certain arms of the immune system than others, she says. And when you have them in combination, they start to synergize and leverage all of our defenses.;

For example, adenovirusesthe kind of delivery virus, or vector, found in the Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca shotsseem to be particularly good at rousing T cells, which are white blood cells that play various roles, including destroying infected cells and coordinating the immune response. Meanwhile, the mRNA vaccines are especially adept at prompting the production of antibodies that target the virus, Lyke says.

How Do These Vaccines Work

The Pfizer-BioNTech and AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines each work in different ways. The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine uses mRNA technology, while the AstraZeneca vaccine uses an adenovirus vector.

Below, well discuss the mechanisms used in each vaccine meant to help protect you from becoming ill with COVID-19.

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/9workability Against The Delta Variant

When we talk of a vaccine’s efficacy and effectiveness, in the current timelines, it becomes all the more crucial to study how effective a vaccine would be against the mutant strains of SARS-COV-2 which are fast spreading and have been categorized as Variants of Concern . As we have seen, there was a rise in cases amongst those who had been vaccinated earlier- meaning that the vaccines we have, may not be as effective as proven.

Although the vaccines are subject to many levels of evaluation, and may even need upgrades as we move forward, some of the vaccines have proven to be less effective and efficacious against the Delta variant. Covishield’s efficacy rate has been seen to drop to 65% with the Delta variant, whereas recent studies have proved a similar drop in the workability of Covaxin as well . With Sputnik V, too, there is a fall, but according to experts, the fall could be insignificant.

As for Moderna’s make, recent evaluations have proved that the vaccine is well able to neutralize antibodies against such VoCs, and offers a good level of protection as well, at a lower efficacy rate. Therefore, the ability of the mRNA vaccine to combat Delta and other variants of COVID-19 may offer it an edge.

However, it should be remembered that all the vaccines available offer good protective odds of reducing symptomatic infections, hospitalization and mortality against the Delta variant.

Does Age Matter For Vaccinations

WATCH: Which COVID vaccine is most effective?

Pfizer’s vaccine is also currently the only vaccine authorized for emergency use in children as young as 12. Both Moderna and J&J’s vaccines can only be used on people 18 and older.

What about younger kids? According to experts, those under 12 likely won’t be able to receive the COVID vaccine until later this year or early next year.

Both Pfizer and Moderna have started studies in the U.S. surrounding the vaccine and children ages 6 months to 11 years. Results on those studies could come sometime in the fall.

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Why Did The Fda And Cdc Recommend Temporarily Pausing Use Of The Johnson & Johnson Covid

On April 13, 2021, the FDA and CDC jointly recommended pausing use of the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine until the agencies could review the cases of a rare but serious type of blood clot that were reported in six women who received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. On April 23, the FDA and CDC recommended lifting the pause, and allowing use of the vaccine to resume. They made this decision after their medical and scientific teams examined the data and determined that the vaccines known and potential benefits outweigh its known and potential risks.

The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is once again available for use in the US, for anyone ages 18 and older. However, the vaccines label and factsheet will now warn of the rare risk of developing blood clots involving blood vessels in the brain, abdomen, and legs, along with low levels of blood platelets. The label and factsheet also list symptoms of TTS and urge anyone who experiences them after receiving the Johnson & Johnson vaccine to seek immediate medical attention.

Since the FDA granted emergency use authorization for the Johnson & Johnson vaccine in late February, more than 8 million doses of the one-dose vaccine have been given. A total of 15 cases of TTS were reported through April 23rd; all occurred in women between the ages of 18 and 59, between six and 15 days after vaccination.

  • severe headache
  • tiny red spots on the skin
  • new or easy bruising or bleeding.

Have There Been Any Covid

Issues concerning the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine and a rare incidence of myocarditis after the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, as noted above have been reported.

Trials for the vaccines have had fully independent safety monitoring boards, and safety data are continuously reviewed by the FDA and expert panels. The number of serious problems in test participants was very low, and there was little difference between those who received the actual vaccine and those who received a placebo. Millions of people have received the vaccines since their authorization, and careful safety monitoring of all three COVID-19 vaccines continues.

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It’s The Only Vaccine We Know That Works Against Variants In The Real World

Pfizer and Moderna set a stunningly high bar as the first vaccines with results from late-stage studies.

“We have a vaccine now that has good efficacy that everyone is going to compare to the existing vaccines and say it doesn’t look quite as good,” Rubin said.;

But there’s more to J&J’s result than that single number.

“What’s really important to remember about this vaccine is that when we conducted our clinical trials, in October of 2020 to about January of 2021, this was during the time when the incidence rate of the virus was really about at its peak,” J&J CEO Alex Gorsky told NBC’s “Today” show on Monday.

J&J’s shot is also the only vaccine to have rigorous clinical data showing success in numerous countries where variants of the virus are rapidly spreading. In particular, J&J’s shot was 64% effective in South Africa, where virtually all the local illnesses during the study were caused by the B.1.351 variant.;

Mathai Mammen, J&J’s research and development head, told Insider that the company’s shot has been “co-optimized” for both antibody and T-cell responses to the virus, while both Pfizer’s and Moderna’s have not.

“That makes our vaccine potentially really good versus a virus that is changing on us,” he said. “We’re worried about the mRNA vaccines not having that T-cell net and actually taking a much bigger hit by the South African variant.”

Have The Covid Vaccines Effectively Protected Older Adults In The Real World


A small study conducted by the CDC and published in MMWR reports that the two mRNA vaccines have been as effective in older adults in the real world as they were in the clinical trials that led to authorization of their use.

The MMWR study was based on 417 patients, ages 65 years and older, who were admitted to a hospital for COVID-like symptoms between early January and late March 2021. All study participants were tested for COVID-19 and asked about their COVID vaccination history.

Researchers compared those who tested positive for COVID-19 and those who had another illness, and also looked at each of the participants COVID vaccination history. Based on their comparisons and calculations, the researchers found that fully vaccinated people reduce their risk of COVID-related hospitalization by 94%. In clinical trials, the vaccines were 95% and 94.1% effective. Effectiveness dropped to 64% in those who were partially vaccinated

Importantly, the vaccines did not protect against COVID-related hospitalization during the first two weeks after the first vaccine dose.

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Which Vaccine Is Better

To best protect yourself from COVID-19 and stop the spread of the novel coronavirus, its important to get vaccinated. The best vaccine to get is typically the one thats the soonest available to you.

If you live in a country where both the Pfizer-BioNTech and AZ vaccines are authorized or approved, you may need to decide which one to get if both options are offered to you. As you decide, you may want to consider the potential risks or side effects associated with each one.

For example, you may have concerns about TTS and choose to get the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine instead of the AstraZeneca vaccine.

Talk with a doctor if youre unsure which ones better or safer for you. Theyre an important resource for information and can cover various topics with you, like:

  • potential benefits of vaccination
  • safety and efficacy evidence currently available
  • potential risks of becoming ill with COVID-19, particularly if you have an underlying condition or are pregnant
  • side effects associated with vaccination and what to do if you experience them
  • how to find a vaccination site close to you

Clinical Trial Results Only Go So Far

You might think clinical trials might provide some answers about which vaccine is best, particularly the large phase 3 trials used as the basis of approval by regulatory authorities around the world.

These trials, usually in tens of thousands of people, compare the number of COVID-19 cases in people who get the vaccine, versus those who get a placebo. This gives a measure of efficacy, or how well the vaccine works under the tightly controlled conditions of a clinical trial.

And we know the efficacy of different COVID vaccines differ. For instance, we learned from clinical trials that the Pfizer vaccine reported an efficacy of 95% in preventing symptoms, whereas AstraZeneca had an efficacy of 62-90%, depending on the dosing regime.

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But direct comparison of phase 3 trials is complex as they take place at different locations and times. This means rates of infection in the community, public health measures and the mix of distinct viral variants can vary. Trial participants can also differ in age, ethnicity and potential underlying medical conditions.

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Are Any Countries Giving Mixed

A number of countries are considering or have decided to mix and match COVID-19 vaccines, Reuters recently reported.;

Several are using vaccines created by different manufacturers for the first and second shots in their regimens, including Denmark, Italy, Canada, Vietnam, and South Korea. Others are offering an extra dose of Pfizer or Modernas vaccine to people who were already fully immunized with other options. Among these are Cambodia, Germany, Turkey, and Indonesia.

Around the world theres a huge problem with scarcity; we absolutely need to do better if were going to close those pockets where COVID is able to get in and then continue replicating and forming these really severe variants, Lyke says. So if we can stretch the vaccine that we have available in any way, or optimize the best way to give a booster, thats really good information to have.

The U.S. government announced this week that it plans to make COVID-19 booster shots widely available due to concerns about waning immunity . The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had already greenlit booster shots of the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines for immunocompromised people. If the mRNA vaccine product given for the first two doses is not available or is unknown, either mRNA COVID-19 vaccine product may be administered, according to the agency.

In the meantime, though, a more pressing concern is reaching people who havent yet been vaccinated.;

How Do They Work

Singapores 3 COVID-19 Vaccines And Is One Better Than The Others?

Monoclonal antibodies are like the antibodies your body makes to fight viruses and other bugs, but they are made in the labs of pharmaceutical companies, like Regeneron. Theyre designed to target the coronavirus spike protein. When the antibodies bind to the spike protein, they block the virus from entering your bodys cells, says Lindsay Petty, MD, an infectious disease doctor at the University of Michigan. If the virus cant enter cells, it cant make copies of itself and continue spreading within the body.

If a person is already sick, that means monoclonal antibodies prevent them from having severe symptoms that require hospitalization. If someone has been exposed, monoclonal antibodies can fend off the virus to prevent them from becoming sick in the first place.

Monoclonal antibodies were first authorized as an IV and are most commonly given at infusion centers. But a recent study showed they can also be given as an shot into the belly when an IV isnt as accessible.

As the coronavirus mutates, monoclonal antibodies targeted for the original form of the virus may become less helpful. The U.S. government stopped distribution of Lillys monoclonal antibodies, bamlanivimab and etesevimab, after evidence showed they werent as effective against new variants of the virus. But other monoclonal antibodies remain helpful.

Consumers should know that Regeneron against the Delta variant, says David Wohl, MD, an infectious disease expert at the University of North Carolina.

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