Global Statistics

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Updated on June 30, 2022 10:02 pm
All countries
Updated on June 30, 2022 10:02 pm
All countries
Updated on June 30, 2022 10:02 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 30, 2022 10:02 pm
All countries
Updated on June 30, 2022 10:02 pm
All countries
Updated on June 30, 2022 10:02 pm
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Which Covid-19 Vaccine Is The Best

It’s Safe And Likely Doesn’t Require A Day Of Rest

Which COVID-19 vaccine is the best? | DW News

Both Pfizer’s and Moderna’s two-dose mRNA shots come with some more serious side effects than J& J’s. Though temporary, the fever, chills, and general malaise people may feel the day after getting their second shot can be severe enough to affect their daily plans.

Lots of people who’ve had strong reactions to their second shot of Pfizer’s or Moderna’s vaccine are recommending others take a day off work after shot No. 2, or they schedule their appointment over the weekend. But not everyone can afford to do that.

J& J’s vaccine is also more convenient for providers. It is less fragile, so it can sit in a regular fridge for three months, without requiring any of the hypercold storage mRNA vaccines do. This could make it an indispensable tool in rural areas. The vaccine may also be a better choice for some people who have polyethylene glycol allergies.

Will The Covid Vaccine Prevent Me From Infecting Others

Increasing evidence suggests that a person who has been vaccinated is less likely to infect others.

Two studies released in February pointed in this direction. The first study looked at viral load the amount of SARS-CoV-2 virus in a person’s nose and throat, which can be spread to others. The study found that the higher a person’s viral load, the more likely they were to spread the infection the lower a person’s viral load, the less likely they were to spread the infection. Results from the second study suggested that people who became infected with SARS-CoV-2 after getting a COVID vaccine had a lower viral load than people who were infected but had not had a COVID vaccine. Taken together, the studies suggest that the COVID vaccine protects against both infection and transmission.

A study published in March 2021 showed that people who received an mRNA vaccine had significantly less risk of asymptomatic infection than people who were unvaccinated. This is important because people who are infected but never go on to develop symptoms are responsible for an estimated 24% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

Readers Respond: What To Say If Someone Asks Why You’re Wearing A Mask

Researchers studied more than 3,000 people hospitalized between March and August. And found the Moderna vaccine was 93% effective at keeping people out the hospital and that protection appears to be holding steady.

The Pfizer vaccine’s protection fell from 91% effective to 77%. The Johnson and Johnson vaccine was 71% effective.

The researchers speculated the Moderna vaccine may be the best because it uses a strong dose and spaced out the two shots a week longer.

The FDA is weighing whether to approve a booster for the Pfizer vaccine.

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    The Fda Has Granted Full Approval To The Pfizer/biontech Covid

    In August 2021, the FDA granted full approval to the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine for use in people ages 16 years and older. The transition from emergency use authorization status to full licensure was based on additional data and longer follow-up showing that the vaccine met certain safety, effectiveness, and manufacturing quality standards. The Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine can now be marketed under the brand name Comirnaty.

    In granting full approval, the FDA analyzed data from 44,000 study participants. Half received two doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine and the other half received the placebo. Over six months of follow-up, the vaccine was 91.1% effective at preventing symptomatic COVID-19 infection.

    A subset of study participants was followed for six months to look at safety outcomes associated with the vaccine. A small but increased risk of two inflammatory heart conditions, myocarditis and pericarditis, was identified and will be noted in the FDAs prescribing information. The risk is higher in males under age 40, and highest in males ages 12 to 17. Safety data will continue to be collected and monitored.

    Before granting full approval, the FDA also inspected vaccine manufacturing facilities to ensure vaccine quality. Full approval gives doctors some leeway to prescribe the vaccine for “off-label use.”

    What Is The Connection Between The Johnson & Johnson Covid

    Top 10 Covid

    In July 2021, the FDA warned that the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine may lead to a small but increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome . GBS is a disorder in which the body destroys its own nerve cells. It can lead to muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis, trouble breathing, or, rarely, death. The risk of developing GBS after receiving the J& J vaccine is very low, and benefits of vaccination still far outweigh the risks.

    The FDAs warning was based on preliminary reports of about 100 cases of GBS that occurred in people who had received the J& J vaccine. To date, about 12.8 million people in the US have gotten the J& J vaccine. Most of the reported cases occurred in men ages 50 years and older, about two weeks after vaccination.

    Almost all required hospitalization because GBS can affect the nerves to chest muscles and the diaphragm, making it difficult to breathe. Most people recover completely from GBS within a few months, but some never regain full strength.

    Seek immediate medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms after receiving the J& J COVID-19 vaccine:

    • weakness or tingling sensations, especially in the legs or arms, thats worsening and spreading to other parts of the body
    • difficulty walking
    • difficulty with facial movement, including speaking, chewing, or swallowing
    • double vision or inability to move eyes
    • difficulty with bladder control or bowel function.

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    Why Vaccines May Be Helping Some With Long Covid

    As more people get vaccinated against COVID-19, a surprise discovery has been that vaccines seem to provide some relief for some patients with whats being called long COVID. A prominent Yale researcher is working with colleagues to launch what she predicts will be a large collaborative study to learn more.

    Does Age Matter For Vaccinations

    Pfizer’s vaccine is also currently the only vaccine authorized for emergency use in children as young as 12. Both Moderna and J& J’s vaccines can only be used on people 18 and older.

    What about younger kids? According to experts, those under 12 likely won’t be able to receive the COVID vaccine until later this year or early next year.

    Both Pfizer and Moderna have started studies in the U.S. surrounding the vaccine and children ages 6 months to 11 years. Results on those studies could come sometime in the fall.

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    Have Patients Sign Up For V

    Once a patient does receive their first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, Dr. Fryhofer recommends signing up for the V-safe vaccination health checker, which is a smartphone-based tool from the CDC.

    They’ll text you every day and you can tell them what your symptoms are, because you’re going to share your experience with others and everyone can learn from your experience, said Dr. Fryhofer, adding that it is important to not only sign up for v-safe, but to also get that second dose.

    The AMA has developed frequently-asked-questions documents on COVID-19 vaccination covering safety, allocation and distribution, administration and more. There are two FAQs, one designed to answer patients questions, and another to address physicians COVID-19 vaccine questions.

    Watch this episode of the AMA webinar series, COVID-19: What physicians need to know, where Peter Marks, MD, PhD, discusses the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine pause with AMA President Susan R. Bailey, MD.

    To learn more about COVID-19 vaccine developments, visit our vaccine resource guide.

    What Are Breakthrough Infections And Why Do They Happen

    Top 8 Vaccines for Covid-19 | Comparison

    A breakthrough infection is one that occurs after full vaccination.

    In an article published in MMWR, the CDC reported 10,262 breakthrough infections through the end of April 2021. By that point, more than 100 million Americans had received the COVID-19 vaccine.

    The vast majority of breakthrough infections were asymptomatic, mild, or moderate. About 1,000 people with breakthrough infections were hospitalized, and 160 died, though the hospitalizations and deaths were not always related to COVID-19.

    These numbers tell us that the vaccines are doing a good job preventing infection and severe illness. None of the vaccines were 100% effective in clinical trials, so a small number of breakthrough infections was expected.

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    Johnson & Johnson And Guillain

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare neurological disorder in which the immune system attacks the nerves. It can cause muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis. People usually recover from it, but it can lead to hospitalization and, sometimes, permanent damage to nerve cells.

    So, its not surprising that people have questions upon hearing that about 100 suspected cases of GBS have been identified among 12.8 million people who have received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. While this figure is low enough to categorize the occurrences as rare, the Food and Drug Administration has now attached a warning to the Johnson & Johnson shot about the increased risk of developing GBS in the 42 days after vaccination.

    What Is An Emergency Use Authorization

    In an EUA, the FDA allows the use of a vaccine or drug during a time of emergency, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, when the available evidence shows the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks. An EUA is not the same as a full FDA approval, which requires a more thorough review of safety and effectiveness.

    Drugs and vaccines that have been given an EUA continue to be studied in clinical trials.

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    Moderna Maintained Efficacy Up To 5 Months

    A recent study by Brigham and Womens Hospital researchers concluded that the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine was 93 percent effective at preventing illness, and more than 98 percent effective for preventing severe illness even 5 months after a second dose.

    The vaccine trial included 30,415 participants, with 15,209 receiving Modernas vaccine and 15,206 given a placebo.

    According to researchers, the Moderna vaccine showed continued effectiveness at preventing COVID-19 and severe illness even after 5 months, while maintaining an acceptable safety profile and protection against asymptomatic infection.

    The message here is not that if you were vaccinated early, youre not protected. Those vaccinated more recently may be experiencing a marginal improvement, co-corresponding author Lindsey Baden, MD, division of infectious diseases at BHW said in a statement. But both groups are benefiting from protection compared to people who remain unvaccinated.

    Waning immunity happens to some extent with all vaccines, but that does not mean that the vaccines stop working completely, David Hirschwerk, MD, an infectious disease specialist with Northwell Health in Manhasset, New York, told Healthline.

    But their effectiveness often reduces as times moves along, he continued.

    He emphasized that COVID-19 vaccines remain very effective at preventing severe illness well beyond 6 months.

    But they become steadily less effective at preventing any degree of infection.

    Yes It Can Be Compared If

    Why Johnson &  Johnson

    The effectiveness of COVID vaccines can be compared in countries that have rolled out different vaccines to the same populations. For instance, the latest data from the UK show both Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines have similar effectiveness. They both reliably prevent COVID-19 symptoms, hospitalisation, and death, even after a single dose. So what at first glance looks “best” according to efficacy results from clinical trials doesn’t always translate to the real world. The COVID vaccine you get today is not likely to be your last. As immunity naturally wanes after immunisation, periodic boosters will become necessary to maintain effective protection.

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    Moderna Leads The Authorized Covid Vaccines In Lasting Effectiveness

      Researchers say all three authorized COVID vaccines are good at keeping people out of the hospital, but Moderna seems to have the longest-lasting protection.hide caption

      toggle caption

      Researchers say all three authorized COVID vaccines are good at keeping people out of the hospital, but Moderna seems to have the longest-lasting protection.

      A head-to-head comparison of all three COVID-19 vaccines found Moderna is holding up better than Pfizer and the Johnson & Johnson vaccine provides the weakest protection.

      But the researchers stressed that all three vaccines are still providing strong protection against people getting so sick that they end up in the hospital.

      How Have The Vaccines Performed The Real World Are They Working As Well As They Did In Clinical Trials

      In a study published online in MMWR, the CDC reported that people who had received both doses of either mRNA vaccine were 90% less likely to get infected with COVID-19 than people who were not vaccinated. In clinical trials, the vaccines were 95% and 94.1% effective.

      The MMWR study enrolled 3950 adults who were at high risk of exposure to the virus due to their jobs and followed them for 13 weeks, beginning in mid-December 2020. About 63% of the study participants received both doses of vaccine during the study period and an additional 12% received one dose during the study. Each week, the study participants sent a nasal swab for PCR testing, and they reported any symptoms, allowing the researchers to identify both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections.

      A total of 180 COVID-19 infections occurred during the study period. Of these, 161 infections were in people who were unvaccinated, compared to three infections in people who were fully vaccinated. Sixteen people who had received only their first vaccine dose at least two weeks earlier were infected. While this translates to one dose preventing 80% of infections, the study did not measure how well the vaccine protects people who do not get the second dose.

      The researchers did not comment on variants, and the study was not designed to measure the effectiveness of the vaccines against them. However, its worth noting that several viral variants were circulating during the study period.

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      Should People With Cancer Get A Specific Covid

      As mentioned in Which COVID-19 vaccines are available?, the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are mRNA vaccines, while the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is an adenovirus vaccine. The main difference between them at this time is that the mRNA vaccines are given as two shots over 3 to 4 weeks , while the adenovirus vaccine is given as a single shot.

      These vaccines have been studied in different places and at different times, and there havent been any studies directly comparing the different vaccines. Because of this, its not clear if any one of the vaccines is safer or more effective than any of the others. Its also not yet clear if any of the vaccines will be more effective against some of the new variants of COVID-19 that have appeared in recent months. This is now being studied, as is the possibility of needing booster shots in the future to help protect against these variants.

      All three of the vaccines now available have been shown to be effective at both lowering the risk of getting COVID-19, as well as the risk of getting severe disease if you are infected.

      At this time, most major medical organizations haven’t recommended getting one type of COVID vaccine over another, either for cancer patients or for other people. Many health experts believe that getting the vaccine once it becomes available to you, whichever one it is, is most important, rather than waiting to get a specific vaccine.

      What Are Mrna Vaccines And How Do They Work To Help Prevent Covid

      Which arm is best for COVID-19 vaccine shot?

      mRNA, or messenger RNA, is genetic material that contains instructions for making proteins. mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 contain synthetic mRNA. Inside the body, the mRNA enters human cells and instructs them to produce the “spike” protein found on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The body recognizes the spike protein as an invader, and starts producing antibodies against it. Soon after, the cell breaks down the mRNA into harmless pieces If the antibodies later encounter the actual virus, they are ready to recognize and destroy it before it causes illness.

      Two mRNA vaccines, one created by Pfizer and BioNTech and another developed by Moderna, were granted emergency use authorization by the FDA in December 2020. In August 2021, the FDA granted full approval to the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine for use in people ages 16 years and older. The transition from EUA status to full licensure was based on additional data and longer follow-up showing that the vaccine met certain safety, effectiveness, and manufacturing quality standards.

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      An Unchartered Situation For All Of Us: From Shipping Containers To Security Concerns A Covid

      Modernas must be shipped at -4 degrees Fahrenheit, which is within the temperature of a regular refrigerator freezer.

      After thawing, a vial of the Pfizer vaccine must be used within five days Modernas is stable at fridge temperature for 30 days and at room temperature for 12 hours. J& Js vaccine can be stored at room temperature not to exceed 77 degrees Fahrenheit for 12 hours when the vial hasnt yet been punctured. After the first dose is withdrawn, the vial can be stored in a fridge for six hours or at room temperature for two hours.

      Research Showed Johnson & Johnson Shot Offered The Least Protection Against Hospitalization Over Time

        The Covid-19 vaccine made by Moderna Inc. is more effective at keeping people out of the hospital than those from Pfizer Inc. and partner BioNTech SE or Johnson & Johnson, new research indicates.

        In a study published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Friday, researchers studied more than 3,600 adults who were hospitalized in the U.S. between March and August of 2021. They looked at people who were admitted to 21 hospitals who had at least one Covid-19 symptom and a positive PCR or antigen test, as well as patients who were admitted to a hospital who tested negative for Covid-19. They then compared their vaccination status and which vaccine they received.

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        How Do The Vaccines Work

        The United States has authorized three vaccines for emergency use, and a fourth is likely to go before the Food and Drug Administration for approval in the coming weeks.

        Pfizer and Moderna: The first two COVID-19 vaccines to be greenlit in the United States use messenger RNA , which is a molecule that instructs human cells to make a piece of the spike protein that the coronavirus uses to attach to and infect human cells. The material from the vaccine quickly disintegrates and never enters the cells nucleus, so it cant alter the recipients DNA. The presence of the harmless spike proteins triggers the immune system to create antibodies and activate T-cells that mount an immune response. With the immune system primed, it is ready to act quickly if it ever detects the coronavirus in the body.

        Researchers have been working on mRNA technology since the 1990s to fight a variety of diseases from influenza to Ebola, but the COVID-19 vaccine is the first time this technology has been authorized for the public.

        The Pfizer vaccine requires two doses administered 21 days apart and the Moderna vaccine requires two doses 28 days apart.

        Its kind of like hijacking a known virus, says Wilbur Chen, MD, an infectious disease and vaccine expert and chief of the adult clinical studies section of the Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health within the University of Maryland School of Medicine.

        The Johnson & Johnson vaccine requires only one dose.

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