Who Discovered Covid 19 Vaccine

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My Friend Or Family Member Is Against Covid

Inside the Lab That Invented the COVID-19 Vaccine

The development of safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines is a huge step forward in our global effort to end the pandemic. This is exciting news, but there are still some people who are skeptical or hesitant about COVID-19 vaccines. Chances are you know a person who falls into this category.

We spoke to Dr. Saad Omer, Director at the Yale Institute for Global Health, to get his tips on how to navigate these challenging conversations.

Meet The Billionaire Scientist Couple Who Invented Pfizer’s Covid

Billionaire scientists behind the mRNA vaccine ride bicycles to work

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DUBAI: News that a Pfizer vaccine is 90% effective against COVID-19 has been hailed as a “miracle”. In the race against time, the announcement signalled that the fight against the virus is now turning in man’s favour.

On Monday, following the vaccine breakthrough report, the company’s stock price went ballistic, along with oil prices. Airline stocks soared, too, on hopes the world will start flying again.

Who Should Be Vaccinated First

Each country must identify priority populations, which WHO recommends are frontline health workers and those at highest risk of death due to COVID-19, such as older adults and people with certain medical conditions. Other essential workers, such as teachers and social workers, should then be prioritized, followed by additional groups as more vaccine doses become available.

Children and adolescents tend to have milder disease compared to adults, so unless they are part of a group at higher risk of severe COVID-19, it is less urgent to vaccinate them than these priority groups.

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Who Discovered The First Vaccine

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The English doctor Thomas Dimsdale was nervous.

It was the evening of October 12, 1768, and Dimsdale was preparing the empress of Russia, Catherine the Great, for her procedure. From a technical perspective, what he planned was simple, medically sound, and minimally invasive. It required only two or three small slices into Catherines arm. Nevertheless, Dimsdale had good reason for his concern, because into those slices he would grind a few scabby pustules teeming with variolathe virus responsible for smallpox and the death of nearly a third of those who contracted it. Though he infected Catherine at her behest, Dimsdale was so concerned about the outcome that he secretly arranged for a stagecoach to rush him out of Saint Petersburg should his procedure go awry.

What Dimsdale planned is alternatively called a variolation or inoculation, and while it was dangerous it nevertheless represented the pinnacle of medical achievement at the time. In a variolation, a doctor transferred smallpox pustules from a sick patient into a healthy one becausefor reasons no one at the time understooda variolated patient typically developed only a mild case of smallpox while still gaining lifelong immunity.

The actual answer is thanks to something epidemiologists call the dose-response curve.

Who Invented The Pfizer Covid Vaccine

Explainer: Where are we in the COVID
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THE coronavirus pandemic started a race to produce a vaccine that can save thousands of lives and return normality to millions.

And as the UK begins its rollout of the vaccine designed by Pfizer and BioNTech, it is all down to a “dream team” couple that an end to covid is in sight.

Read our coronavirus live blog for the latest news & updates

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Vaccine Efficacy And Effectiveness

All COVID-19 vaccines approved by WHO for emergency use listing have been through randomized clinical trials to test their quality, safety and efficacy. To be approved, vaccines are required to have a high efficacy rate of 50% or above. After approval, they continue to be monitoredfor ongoing safety and effectiveness. But what is the difference between efficacy and effectiveness?

A vaccines efficacy is measured in a controlled clinical trial and is based on how many people who got vaccinated developed the outcome of interest compared with how many people who got the placebo developed the same outcome. Once the study is complete, the numbers of sick people in each group are compared, in order to calculate the relative risk of getting sick depending on whether or not the subjects received the vaccine. From this we get the efficacy a measure of how much the vaccine lowered the risk of getting sick. If a vaccine has high efficacy, a lot fewer people in the group who received the vaccine got sick than the people in the group who received the placebo.

Vaccine Protection And Infection

Vaccines can stop most people from getting sick with COVID-19, but not everyone.

Even after someone takes all of the recommended doses and waits a few weeks for immunity to build up, there is still a chance that they can get infected. Vaccines do not provide full protection, so breakthrough infections where people get the virus, despite having been fully vaccinated will occur.

If vaccinated people do get sick, they are likely to have milder symptoms, in general ‘It is very rare for someone vaccinated to experience severe illness or die.

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Missed Opportunities And Legal Exhaustion

Kay wasnt the only scientist who noticed MacLachlan and his teams work at the time.

In 2006, MacLachlans work caught the eye of a talented biochemist Katalin Karikó, a Hungarian scientist who is now a frontrunner for a Nobel Prize for her revolutionary work with mRNA.

Kariko has worked with BioNTech since 2013, but long before that, she proposed to MacLachlan that they partner to use her messenger RNA with his delivery system.

In an email to CTV News, Kariko explained that she asked him constantly in 2006 to consider using his LNP with mRNA.

I that he was formulating the siRNA, and I wanted him to try the mRNA as well, she said. Why did I want to formulate the mRNA with LNP? The mRNA product needed shelf-life. We need formulated mRNA that can be stored in the freezer for extended time.

However, MacLachlan was embroiled in legal conflicts over the technology, and so he declined Karikos idea.

We were a small company at the time, and very much focused on the siRNA drugs, as opposed to the mRNA drugs, he added.

The legal battles played a role, and after around a decade of legal wrangling over the ownership of , MacLachlan was drained.

He said as the company expanded and there were partners who werent necessarily very well behaved, leading to legal disputes with them over the ownership of the delivery system.

That was a very unfortunate distraction, and something that I didn’t want to spend the rest of my life having to deal with, MacLachlan said.

Vaccine Protection And Timing

Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine Found To Be 90% Effective In Preventing Illness]

Vaccines offer strong protection, but that protection takes time to build. People must take all the required doses of a vaccine to build full immunity. For two-dose vaccines, vaccines only give partial protection after the first dose, and the second dose increases that protection. It takes time before protection reaches its maximum level a few weeks after the second dose. For a one-dose vaccine, people will have built maximum immunity against COVID-19 a few weeks after getting vaccinated.

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Vaccine Efficacy Effectiveness And Protection

This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines from how they work and how theyre made to ensuring safety and equitable access in WHOs Vaccines Explained series.

COVID-19 vaccines have proven to be safe, effective and life-saving. Like all vaccines, they do not fully protect everyone who is vaccinated, and we do not yet know how well they can prevent people from transmitting the virus to others. So as well as getting vaccinated, we must also continue with other measures to fight the pandemic.

South African Epidemiologist Flags A Concern Found In New Omicron Data

Scientists Ugur Sahin and Ozlem Tureci have dedicated their lives to the field of oncology and infectious diseases, and spent years pioneering personalized immunotherapy treatments for cancer.

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Nyc Lawmaker Playing Guinea Pig In Pfizer’s Covid

Dr. Tureci and Dr. Sahin are not looking to profit from their discovery, though their company is now valued at $26 billion. Our need for money is just the need to have a normal life, he says. We do not have special needs. We dont even have a car. A yacht would be impractical.

They occasionally go on holiday to the Canary Islands, choosing an apartment near the sea. Half the time we have a vacation and half the time our work continues so it needs to be an apartment with internet connection. I always say its great to have a vacation doing work. Their flat, which they share with their teenage daughter, is modest. They toast their triumphs by brewing Turkish tea.

Dr. Sahin says the success of their research proves the benefits of a cosmopolitan exchange of ideas. In our company we have people from more than 60 countries, our meetings even though we are located in Germany are always in English. We have people from Asia, Africa, the United States, England, around Europe, Turkey, he says. In science it does not matter where you are from, what counts is what you can do and what you are willing to do. This is a vaccine not only by Pfizer and Biontech, it is a vaccine by mankind because every single individual has their history and education. It just shows that if you are given a chance to, everyone can contribute.

This piece first published in the Times of London

Does Being Vaccinated Stop Me From Infecting Other People With Covid

Prime Minister Pledges To Take COVID

There is some evidence that being vaccinated helps prevent you from spreading the virus, so it may protect people around you. However, more data is needed to know the extent of this protection and there is still a chance you could pass the virus on, even without symptoms.

Therefore, it is important to continue practicing safety precautions to protect yourself and others, including avoiding crowded spaces, physical distancing, hand washing and wearing a mask.

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What To Read Watch And Listen To About Coronavirus

New Scientist Weekly features updates and analysis on the latest developments in the covid-19 pandemic. Our podcast sees expert journalists from the magazine discuss the biggest science stories to hit the headlines each week from technology and space, to health and the environment.

The Jump is a BBC Radio 4 series exploring how viruses can cross from animals into humans to cause pandemics. The first episode examines the origins of the covid-19 pandemic.

Why Is Covid Killing People of Colour? is a BBC documentary, which investigates what the high covid-19 death rates in ethnic minority patients reveal about health inequality in the UK.

Panorama: The Race for a Vaccine is a BBC documentary about the inside story of the development of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine against covid-19.

Race Against the Virus: Hunt for a Vaccine is a Channel 4 documentary which tells the story of the coronavirus pandemic through the eyes of the scientists on the frontline.

The New York Times is assessing the progress in development of potential drug treatments for covid-19, and ranking them for effectiveness and safety.

Humans of COVID-19 is a project highlighting the experiences of key workers on the frontline in the fight against coronavirus in the UK, through social media.

Coronavirus, Explained on Netflix is a short documentary series examining the coronavirus pandemic, the efforts to fight it and ways to manage its mental health toll.

Latest On Coronavirus From New Scientist

Two years of covid-19:What weve learned during the pandemic so far

A soldier administers a vaccination at the Army Reserve Centre in Poole, England.

Our daily covid-19 update will resume on 4 January

Immunity offered by vaccines wanes more quickly with omicron, finds UK study

The protection conferred by booster vaccines against the omicron variant begins to wane within 10 weeks, according to a briefing released by the UK Health Security Agency .

Based on an analysis of 147,597 delta and 68,489 omicron cases, the agency found that the Oxford/AstraZeneca, Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are less effective against omicron than delta. For people who had two initial doses of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine, the UKHSA estimates that Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna boosters are around 60 per cent effective at preventing symptomatic infections from omicron 2 to 4 weeks after the third dose, but this falls to 35 to 45 per cent by 10 weeks. For those who had two initial doses of Pfizer/BioNTech, protection falls from 70 per cent at 2 to 4 weeks to 45 per cent at 10 weeks after a Pfizer booster, but stays around 70 to 75 per cent up to 9 weeks after a Moderna booster.

However, modelling suggests that the severity of omicron would need to be around 90 per cent lower to avoid similar levels of hospital admissions to previous waves, according to minutes from a meeting of the UK governments Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies on Monday.

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What Are The Benefits Of Getting Vaccinated

Vaccines save millions of lives each year and a COVID-19 vaccine could save yours. The COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective, providing strong protection against serious illness and death. WHO reports that unvaccinated people have at least 10 times higher risk of death from COVID-19 than someone who has been vaccinated. There is also evidence that being vaccinated can help prevent you from spreading the virus, so it protects people around you.

It is important to be vaccinated as soon as its your turn, even if you already had COVID-19. Vaccines offer more reliable protection than natural immunity. Getting vaccinated is a safer way for you to develop immunity from COVID-19 than getting infected.

The COVID-19 vaccines are highly effective, but no vaccine provides 100 per cent protection. Some people will still get ill from COVID-19 after vaccination or pass the virus onto someone else.

Therefore, it is important to continue practicing safety precautions to protect yourself and others, including avoiding crowded spaces, physical distancing, hand washing and wearing a mask.

Has The Speed Of Developing Vaccines For Covid

COVID-19 vaccine | Novavax effective against variant first discovered in SA

No. All the standard safety procedures have been followed during clinical trials on vaccines for COVID-19 and the rigorous regulatory processes have been fully completed as for any other vaccine or medicine.

Before any vaccine can be given to the population it must go through rigorous testing. Like all medicines, vaccines undergo extensive clinical trials, where they are administered and monitored in groups of volunteers. In the UK, the results of the trials are then assessed by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency .

No medicine can ever be completely risk-free or 100% effective. However, strong licencing processes and safety tests ensure that the health benefits of medicines being given through the NHS greatly outweigh any risks.

Other common questions and concerns about COVID-19 vaccines, such as long-term side effects, are answered in our free, easy-to-read guide.

If you are interested in translating these resources into another language, please email . Please do not translate these resources without our permission.

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Early Authorizations In China And Russia

On 24 June 2020, China approved the CanSino vaccine for limited use in the military and two inactivated virus vaccines for emergency use in high-risk occupations. On 11 August 2020, Russia announced the approval of its Sputnik V vaccine for emergency use, though one month later only small amounts of the vaccine had been distributed for use outside of the phase 3 trial. In September, the United Arab Emirates approved emergency use of the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine for healthcare workers, followed by similar emergency use approval from Bahrain in November.

Can I Stop Taking Precautions After Being Vaccinated

Keep taking precautions to protect yourself, family and friends if there is still COVID-19 in your area, even after getting vaccinated. Vaccines can stop most people from getting sick, but no vaccine provides 100 per cent protection.

Were also still learning about how the variants of concern, such as Omicron, may affect vaccine effectiveness. Therefore, it is important to continue practicing safety precautions to protect yourself and others. These precautions include avoiding crowded spaces, physical distancing, hand washing and wearing a mask.

And remember, building immunity takes time. When you get vaccinated, check how long it will take until you reach immunity as it varies by vaccine.

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Benefits For Other Vaccines

The COVID-19 pandemic should see some permanent changes in vaccine development. For a start, it might establish the use of mRNA vaccines which hadnt previously been approved for general use in people as a speedy approach for other diseases. This technology is revolutionizing vaccinology, says Kampmann. Candidate mRNA vaccines can be chemically synthesized in a few days, in contrast to the more complicated biotechnology involved in producing proteins in cells. The technology lends itself to the nimble plug-and-play approach that will be required to respond to pandemics, Kampmann says.

Whats more, RNA simplifies the manufacturing a lot, says Rappuoli. You can use the same facility to make RNA for different diseases. That decreases the investment required. Companies should also be ramping up their manufacturing capacities because they still have to make vaccines for measles, polio and other diseases even as they produce COVID-19 immunizations. That could help to meet demand in future.

Modernas mRNA COVID-19 vaccine will be made by the biotech firm Lonza at these facilities in Visp, Switzerland.Credit: Denis Balibouse/Reuters

Still, other vaccines can probably only be developed at a comparable speed when infection levels are high making it possible to run massive trials relatively quickly and with huge amounts of funding. And other viruses might be harder to target than SARS-CoV-2 turned out to be.

Nature589, 16-18

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