Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 12:09 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 12:09 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 12:09 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 12:09 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 12:09 pm
All countries
Updated on June 23, 2022 12:09 pm
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Why Do Some People Get Side Effects From Covid Vaccine

Health & Wellnesssore After Getting The Covid

Ask Allie: Why do some people get side effects from COVID vaccines?

Dr. Anne Liu, an infectious disease physician at Stanford Health Care in Palo Alto, California, said that the “majority of people” in clinical trials for the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines had “local side effects,” which means they felt pain or swelling at the injection site.

“As far as more significant, systemic side effects, it was a minority of patients, especially for the first injection,” said Liu, referring to symptoms like fatigue, chills, muscle aches or fevers. “Most people are not going to have systemic side effects.”

In some rare cases, people have experienced anaphylactic reactions to the vaccine. Some have also experienced mild skin reactions, like delayed redness at the injection site.

Dr. David Dowdy, an epidemiologist and associate professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, said that “every other vaccine we’ve ever given” has similar effects: Some people may experience “much stronger side effects,” which others “don’t feel those side effects at all.”

What Causes The Immune Reactions

In the case of the authorized COVID-19 vaccinesPfizer, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnsonall contain a genetic blueprint for manufacturing spike proteins, which sit on the surface of the coronavirus and enable it to infect human cells. When human cells receive these instructions, they churn out copies of spike protein. But since the cells make only a piece of the virus, and not the whole pathogen itself, we dont get sick. But while the foreign spike cant cause disease, it can activate a two-step immune responseexactly as it is supposed to do.

The immediate physical reaction to the COVID-19 vaccine is caused by the innate immune system. When a person receives a shot, a flurry of white blood cells called macrophages and neutrophils arrive at the injection site and begin producing chemicals called cytokines. This response triggers a wide range of symptoms, from inflammation and swelling at the injection site to fever, fatigue, and chills.

Return On Investment Of Immunisation In Gavi

A study covering the 73 Gavi-supported countries shows that, for every US$ 1 spent on immunisation in the 20212030 period, US$ 21 are saved in health care costs, lost wages and lost productivity due to illness and death. When considering the value people place on lives saved by vaccines which is likely to include the value of costs averted plus the broader societal value of lives saved and people living longer and healthier lives the return on investment is estimated to be US$ 54 per US$ 1 spent.

Sim S.Y., Watts E., Constenla D., Brenzel L., Patenaude B.N. Return On Investment From Immunization Against 10 Pathogens In 94 Low- And Middle-Income Countries, 201130. Health Affairs, 2020

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Can Medication Affect Side Effects

Because reactions after the vaccine are related to an immune response/inflammation, theres concern that taking anti-inflammatory medications can disrupt the body’s natural response to the vaccine. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends against taking these anti-inflammatory medications pre-emptively before vaccination. However, its OK to use them after the shot if youre experiencing discomfort.The bottom line is not to worry if you had a strong reaction or not. Studies show a high level of protection for everyone vaccinated whether there was a strong reaction or none at all. Dr. Ashley Lipps is an infectious diseases physician and assistant professor in the Division of Infectious Diseases at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.

Why Do Some Experience Side

Why do some people get side effects after COVID

Brown said age is perhaps the biggest determining factor, noting older people, who tend to have less robust immune systems, report fewer reactions. Canada’s vaccine supply to date has mostly been administered to older populations.

The absence of side-effects doesn’t mean the vaccine isn’t working, Brown added. Some people simply won’t show outward reactions.

News out of Europe last week caused concern over AstraZeneca’s product after some adverse events, including blood clots, were reported following vaccination. That spurred nearly a dozen countries to pause their use of the product while experts investigate a possible link.

WATCH | Several EU states suspend use of AstraZeneca vaccine:

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I Didnt Have A Reaction To The Vaccine Does That Mean Its Not Working

It’s totally a reasonable concern, Pullen says. But we have a lot of data now showing that yes, it is effective for people who don’t feel those symptoms.

In the Pfizer vaccine trials, about one out in four reported no side effects. In trials of the Moderna vaccine, side effects were somewhat more common, with 82 percent of individuals experiencing them after the second dose. Despite the range of immune reactions, the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines have shown to be 90 percent effective at preventing Covid-19 in a real-world setting.

If you dont have any reactions, Pullen says it means your immune system is tuned just right to respond to the vaccine.

Focus On 20 Priority Countries

In Gavis 20162020 strategic period, we intensified our efforts in 20 priority countries. In 2020, seven of these countries Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Nigeria and Pakistan accounted for the most zero-dose children in Gavi-supported countries, so improving their immunisation coverage is critical.

During 20162020, we also prioritised ten countries facing severe inequities or crises: Central African Republic, Haiti, Madagascar, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Papua New Guinea, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen.

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Are Side Effects More Common With The Second Dose

People are also more likely to report side effects after their second dose, Arwady said, echoing reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

According to the CDC, side effects after your second shot “may be more intense than the ones you experienced after your first shot.”

“These side effects are normal signs that your body is building protection and should go away within a few days,” the CDC states.

In trials of both the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines, more people experienced side effects after the second dose.

But that doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t get your second shot if you get side effects after your first, experts say.

When people receive that second dose, they are receiving the second booster to try and reach the maximum efficacy,” said Dr. Edward Cachay, infectious disease specialist at UCSD.

The CDC also noted that both shots are needed.

“The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine and Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine both need 2 shots in order to get the most protection,” the CDC states. “You should get the second shot even if you have side effects after the first shot, unless a vaccination provider or your doctor tells you not to get it.”

What Can I Do To Treat Pfizer And Moderna Vaccine Side Effects

Why do some people get side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine and others don’t?

For side effects like arm pain, cooling the area and moving or exercising your arm as much as possible can help reduce soreness. Keeping your arm still or tensing your muscle may make the pain worse.

If you have symptoms like headache or fever, you do not have to treat them if they are mild. For more serious symptoms, such as a migraine headache or high fever, you can consider using over-the-counter medications like Tylenol or ibuprofen.

These medications are safe to use after vaccination, but are not recommended for symptom prevention. Since we do not know exactly how these medications may affect the immune system response, experts advise against taking them before getting the vaccine.

Some people may not be able to take Tylenol or ibuprofen because of other medical conditions, so it is important to always talk to your provider before taking any medication.

The best thing to do after your second dose of the vaccine is to get plenty of rest and drink fluids. Your symptoms should get better on their own within a couple of days. If your symptoms do not get better, get worse, or you develop new symptoms, call a healthcare provider.

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Hpv Vaccine: Demand Outpaces Supply

Global demand for human papillomavirus vaccine continues to outpace available supply, despite manufacturing capacity expansion efforts of a major supplier to Gavi. Countries were unable to scale up as originally envisioned, with multi-age cohort vaccination deferred until supply availability improves. This translated into more than 7.1 million girls vaccinated by end 2020 compared to the original target of 40 million. In Gavi 5.0, Gavis fifth strategic period , we expect increased HPV vaccine supply from both existing and new manufacturers.

Why Do Individuals Have Such Different Reactions To Covid

Put simply: We all have different immune systems. Our immune system is made up of two layers of defense: the innate and adaptive immune systems. The innate immune system is the one were born with, meaning its heavily influenced by our genetics. Our adaptive immune system, meanwhile, evolves over time. Its shaped by the pathogens and other substances in the environment that were exposed to over the course of our lives.

When you get the first dose of the Covid-19 vaccine, your innate immune system is the first to respond. Some individuals can have stronger reactions to a vaccine because their immune system is just hardwired that way.

Some people’s innate immune system is more reactive to certain stimuli, but not to the extent that it’s bad for you, says Nicholas Pullen, an immunologist and associate professor of biological sciences at the University of Northern Colorado.

Poland is among those whose immune systems overreacted to the vaccine. In doing so, his immune system released more immune signals, or chemicals known as cytokines and chemokines, than the average person. Everyones immune system generates different levels of these chemicals based on what our bodies think we need. Some individuals release more of these chemicals than necessary, while other individuals have a more balanced immune response.

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Pfizer And Moderna Side Effects After The Second Covid

The Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines are the same type of vaccine called messenger RNA vaccines. Because of this, you may experience similar side effects with either brand, but they may be more noticeable after the second shot. Common side effects can include:

  • Arm pain, swelling, or redness

  • Headache

  • Chills

  • Nausea

More serious side effects, like a severe allergic reaction and myocarditis or pericarditis , are very rare.

Are Certain Groups More Likely To Have Side Effects Than Others

Why do some people experience side effects after the COVID

Younger adults are reporting more side effects from Covid-19 vaccines. Poland says thats probably because they tend to have more robust immune systems than older adults.

Women also report more side effects than men. Its possible that men may be more hesitant to speak up about side effects because of cultural expectations of masculinity, but Poland thinks biological reasons exist for this discrepancy.

For one, women tend to have stronger immune responses than men do. Most of the immune response genes are located on the X chromosome. Typically, biologically female individuals are born with two X chromosomes, which means double the number of these genes compared to men.

Women also have thicker fat pads in the deltoid musclethe part of the upper shoulder where the vaccine is injected. Muscles have a lot of blood vessels, which allow an injected vaccine to be absorbed and carried throughout the body more quickly. But sometimes healthcare workers mistakenly inject the vaccine into the fat instead of the muscle, which can trigger an inflammatory response. Because fat tissue retains injected material for much longer, its more susceptible to adverse effects caused by that injection.

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The Vaccine Development Process From Clinical Trials To Ongoing Monitoring Helps To Uncover And Understand Side Effects

Clinical trials are a key part of vaccine development and involve evaluating use in tens of thousands of study participants. All of the COVID-19 vaccines went through this rigorous process before authorization.

In reviewing results from the trials, the federal Food and Drug Administration must determine that the known and potential benefits outweigh the known and potential risks of the vaccine.

After vaccines are authorized and in use by the public, public health officials continue monitoring the data as an additional safety measure. Manufacturers must have a plan to report follow-up data, including any events such as hospitalizations and deaths, and they must continue research to generate more data on safety and efficacy. Learn more about FDA emergency use authorization.

How Do We Know The Covid

One of the reasons some people havent signed up to receive the COVID-19 vaccine is that theyre worried there might be unknown side effects that will show up months or years later.

Although its true there are still a lot of things were learning about the vaccines like how effective they are against variants and how long their protection lasts there are plenty of things we do know that give experts confidence in the long-term safety of the vaccines.

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Why Do Some People Have Side Effects With Covid

After getting the COVID-19 vaccine, some people develop a low-grade fever, fatigue, headache, and/or muscle aches, while others have no symptoms at all. According to Leslie Parent, vice dean for research and graduate studies in the Penn State College of Medicine, scientists do not fully understand why this is the case, but the differences could be due to a combination of a persons age, genetics and past exposure to other viruses, including common-cold coronaviruses.

After getting the COVID-19 vaccine, some people develop a low-grade fever, fatigue, headache, and/or muscle aches, while others have no symptoms at all.

According to Leslie Parent, vice dean for research and graduate studies in the Penn State College of Medicine, scientists do not fully understand why this is the case, but the differences could be due to a combination of a persons age, genetics and past exposure to other viruses, including common-cold coronaviruses.

Parent noted that for the Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines, the second dose may cause greater side effects than the first.

Thats because the first dose primes the immune system to respond, while the second dose further stimulates the immune cells into action, which leads to some people having more side effects, she said.

But, she added, the severity of symptoms likely do not correlate with the level of protection.

Less Common Side Effects

COVID-19 vaccine side effects

Upon receiving the vaccine, a person should be requested to stay for 1530 minutes at the vaccination site so health workers are available in case of any immediate reactions. Individuals should alert their local health providers following vaccination if they experience any unexpected side effects or other health events such as side effects lasting more than three days. Less common side effects reported for some COVID-19 vaccines have included severe allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis however, this reaction is extremely rare.

National authorities and international bodies, including WHO, are closely monitoring for any unexpected side effects following COVID-19 vaccine use.

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Rare Reactions That Have Been Reported

As with all vaccines, there’s a very small chance that there will be a serious side effect. Most side effects are reported within the first 42 days following immunization. All side effect reports, including the rare reactions below, continue to be monitored closely by:

  • Health Canada
  • the Public Health Agency of Canada
  • provincial and territorial health authorities
  • the manufacturers

Health Canada is:

  • continuing to monitor emerging safety information about the vaccines in Canada and internationally
  • working closely with the manufacturers to ensure the labels on vaccines reflect relevant information, such as:
  • directions for use
  • warnings about side effects when used alone or when used with other products

Does Everyone Suffer These Side Effects Post

Side effects post-COVID vaccination are extremely common among the ones who are taking the jab. That said, everyone reacts differently. If you didn’t feel anything a day or two after either dose, that doesn’t mean the vaccine isn’t working. Behind the scenes, the shots also set in motion the second part of your immune system, which will provide real protection from the virus by producing antibodies.

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Are Blood Clots A Side

Concerns have been raised about a particular situation whereby certain blood clots have occurred together with low levels of platelets tiny cells in the blood that help it to clot.

Earlier this month the MHRA said that while not yet proved, there was growing evidence to suggest this syndrome could be caused by the AstraZeneca jab, while the European Medicines Agency said there was a possible link and noted the syndrome should be listed as a very rare side-effect of the vaccine.

So far, most of the cases reported have occurred in women under 60 years of age within two weeks of vaccination. Based on the currently available evidence, specific risk factors have not been confirmed, the EMA said.

However, cases remain very rare: the MHRA noted 79 cases of blood clots with low platelets, including 19 deaths, following more than 20m doses of the AstraZeneca jab, with 44 of the cases and 14 of the deaths related to a rare type of blood clot in the brain called cerebral venous sinus thrombosis that occurred with a low platelet count.

Experts have stressed the rarity of such cases estimating they may occur in about one in 100,000 young adults who get the jab a risk lower than the chance of dying in a road accident in a year. What is more, they note that for most people the risk posed by Covid is much greater than the chance of serious harm from a Covid jab, and that Covid itself can cause dangerous blood clots. In other words, the benefits of the jab far outweigh the risks.

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