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Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
All countries
Updated on August 10, 2022 4:58 pm
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Why Do Some People React To Covid Vaccine

Why Some People React Strongly To Covid

Why do some people feel sick after getting a COVID vaccine and others don’t?

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Lara Adejoro

Consultant Family Physician and Head of Department, Family Medicine Department at the University of Ilorin, Dr. Ibrahim Kuranga-Suleiman, says some people will react to COVID-19 vaccines, not necessarily because of a previous infection or because the vaccine is faulty.

He noted that some people react badly to some of the ingredients that were used in vaccine manufacturing simply because they are hypersensitive to the components.

He added that some individuals react to the COVID-19 vaccines worse than others because of their health history, body weight and genetic make-up.

Prof. Kuranga-Suleiman spoke in reaction to the Israeli researchers preliminary evidence that people previously infected with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus responded very strongly to one dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, regardless of when they were infected and whether or not they had detectable antibodies against COVID-19 before receiving the vaccine.

The common problems is that they will develop body pain, fever and it will go with time or if they take paracetamol.

But, since its the same quantity they give to both the slim and the fat ones, the fat people will not react badly as much as the slim people will react to the vaccine.

If the fat people will take it easily, the slim ones may react and have some feverish conditions, Kuranga said.

Our study confirms recently published evidence suggesting that immune memory persists at least six months post-infection.

Why Do Individuals Have Such Different Reactions To Covid

Put simply: We all have different immune systems. Our immune system is made up of two layers of defense: the innate and adaptive immune systems. The innate immune system is the one were born with, meaning its heavily influenced by our genetics. Our adaptive immune system, meanwhile, evolves over time. Its shaped by the pathogens and other substances in the environment that were exposed to over the course of our lives.

When you get the first dose of the Covid-19 vaccine, your innate immune system is the first to respond. Some individuals can have stronger reactions to a vaccine because their immune system is just hardwired that way.

Some people’s innate immune system is more reactive to certain stimuli, but not to the extent that it’s bad for you, says Nicholas Pullen, an immunologist and associate professor of biological sciences at the University of Northern Colorado.

Poland is among those whose immune systems overreacted to the vaccine. In doing so, his immune system released more immune signals, or chemicals known as cytokines and chemokines, than the average person. Everyones immune system generates different levels of these chemicals based on what our bodies think we need. Some individuals release more of these chemicals than necessary, while other individuals have a more balanced immune response.

Vaccine Behavior Largely Matches Previous Intentions

Nine in ten of those who said back in January 2021 they would get vaccinated as soon as they were able now report, six months later, that they have received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. In addition, slightly more than half of those who were in the wait and see group back in January, say they have received a COVID-19 vaccine while 46% of adults in this group report not being vaccinated against COVID-19. A smaller share, one-fourth of those who said they would only get vaccinated if required or they would definitely not get vaccinated now report receiving at least one dose, while the majority of adults in this group say they remain unvaccinated.

Three-fourths of the most vaccine enthusiastic group say they received a COVID-19 vaccine more than two months ago, compared to a majority of vaccinated adults from the wait and see group who say they received their vaccine either less than one month ago or between one and two months ago .

What Made Some People Decide to Get vaccinated?

When the 21% of adults who are now vaccinated after saying in January they planned on waiting to get vaccinated, would only get it if required, or would definitely not get vaccinated are asked in their own words what they learned or heard that persuaded them to get vaccinated, many discussed the role of their friends and family members as well as their personal doctors in their decision.

In their own words: What did you learn or hear that persuaded you to get vaccinated?

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Covid Vaccine Side Effects

    Its helpful to understand side effects before you get a COVID-19 vaccine. For the vast majority of people already vaccinated in the U.S. for COVID-19, the side effects, if any, have been mild. Serious or persistent side effects associated with the approved or authorized vaccines are extremely rare.

    Lisa Maragakis, M.D., M.P.H., senior director of infection prevention, and Gabor Kelen, M.D., director of the Johns Hopkins Office of Critical Event Preparedness and Response, help you understand side effects associated with the COVID-19 vaccines.

    Side Effects Versus Adverse Events

    These 3 Groups Get More COVID Vaccine Side Effects, Says ...

    But side effects and adverse eventswhich often get conflatedare not the same, says Wherry. Side effects are pretty commonoccurring maybe 50 to 70 percent of the time. But adverse events are rare and unexpected, like the clotting disorders.

    Immediately after injection, about two to five people per million experience anaphylaxis, a severe allergic reaction that causes a dramatic drop in blood pressure and difficulty breathing. But even this is easily treatable with an EpiPen and antihistamines, which is why everyone is asked to stick around for 15 minutes after their COVID-19 shots.

    The blood clots associated with the Johnson & Johnson vaccines, that have occurred within six to 13 days of receiving the shot, can be dangerous and even life threatening. But the incidence is quite low there are only 23 confirmed cases out of 8.4 million doses of the vaccine.

    This is very rare, says Ofer Levy, director of the precision vaccines program at Boston Childrens Hospital and a professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School. The risk of getting COVID and possibly dying is much higher than getting blood clots from the vaccines.

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    Does A Lack Of Side Effects Mean The Vaccine Isnt Working

    No. Some lucky people experience few or no side effects. But that doesnt mean their immune system isnt properly responding.

    Hotez said there is no correlation between the severity of side effects and the strength of the immune response. In other words, having no side effects doesnt mean the vaccine is not working, and having more side effects doesnt mean its working better.

    Antibody tests can show how well your immune system has responded to a vaccine, but Pride said people who are immunocompromised are the only ones who need to worry about that. For most people, theres little chance the vaccine will fail to stimulate an immune response. Talk to your doctor if youre unsure.

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    Why Do The Common Side

    The sore arm can be either due to the trauma of the needle in the muscle, or local inflammation in the muscle probably because of the chemicals in the injection, said Prof Robert Read, head of clinical and experimental sciences within medicine at the University of Southampton and director of the National Institute of Health Researchs Southampton Biomedical Research Centre.

    The other common side-effects the muscle aches, flu-like illness and fatigue are probably due to generalised activation of the immune system caused by the vaccine. What this means is that the white blood cells that are stimulated by the vaccine to make antibodies themselves have to secrete chemicals called cytokines, interferons and chemokines, which function to send messages from cell to cell to become activated.

    Read said that for some people the process was without symptoms, but for others it generated these common side-effects.

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    Who Is More Likely To Experience No Vaccine Side Effects

    Everyone’s immunity is different, so it can be true that two similar individuals whether it be age, sex, current health status experience vastly different side effects after vaccination… or none at all. But clinical trials on the vaccines in use in the United States suggested that certain demographics may be more likely to experience reactogenicity side effects, issues like fatigue or headaches, while others are less likely overall.

    Older individuals have historically reported fewer side effects when it comes to COVID-19 vaccines, Dr. Martin points out. The younger you are, the more likely it may be that your immune response includes noticeable side effects, Dr. Martin explains. CDC officials noted in clinical trials that side effects were higher for those under the age of 55 data suggested, at the time, that younger people would experience more side effects than those who were older, especially after the second dose.

    Women are more likely to experience noticeable vaccine side effects than men, per CDC data. Out of nearly 7,000 reports of side effects in early January, 80% were filed by women, most often citing headaches, dizziness or fatigue. Furthermore, teams behind the Moderna mRNA vaccine have shared that 77% of its reported side effects have come from women as well, according to USA Today.

    When To Call The Doctor

    Why some people are not getting the COVID vaccine

    Side effects can affect you or your childs ability to do daily activities, but they should go away in a few days.

    In most cases, discomfort from pain or fever is a normal sign that the body is building protection. Contact a doctor or healthcare provider:

    • If the redness or tenderness where the shot was given gets worse after 24 hours
    • If the side effects are worrying or do not seem to be going away after a few days

    If you or your child get a COVID-19 vaccine and you think you or they might be having a severe allergic reaction after leaving the vaccination site, seek immediate medical care by calling 911. Learn more about COVID-19 vaccines and rare severe allergic reactions.

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    What Are The Possible Side Effects

    According to Pfizer, about 3.8% of their clinical trial participants experienced fatigue as a side effect and 2% got a headache.

    Moderna says 9.7% of their participants felt fatigued and 4.5% got a headache.

    Like Pfizer and Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccines, the main side effects of the J& J shot are pain at the injection site and flu-like fever, fatigue and headache.

    The CDC reports the most common side effects for all three authorized vaccines is at the injection site. They include:

    • Pain
    • Fever
    • Nausea

    “The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine and Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine both need 2 shots in order to get the most protection,” the CDC states. “You should get the second shot even if you have side effects after the first shot, unless a vaccination provider or your doctor tells you not to get it.”

    When people receive that second dose, they are receiving the second booster to try and reach the maximum efficacy,” said Dr. Edward Cachay, infectious disease specialist at UCSD.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advises people to stick around for 15 minutes after vaccination, and those with a history of other allergies for 30 minutes, so they can be monitored and treated immediately if they have a reaction.

    Why Do Some People Have Side Effects With Covid

    After getting the COVID-19 vaccine, some people develop a low-grade fever, fatigue, headache, and/or muscle aches, while others have no symptoms at all. According to Leslie Parent, vice dean for research and graduate studies in the Penn State College of Medicine, scientists do not fully understand why this is the case, but the differences could be due to a combination of a persons age, genetics and past exposure to other viruses, including common-cold coronaviruses.

    After getting the COVID-19 vaccine, some people develop a low-grade fever, fatigue, headache, and/or muscle aches, while others have no symptoms at all.

    According to Leslie Parent, vice dean for research and graduate studies in the Penn State College of Medicine, scientists do not fully understand why this is the case, but the differences could be due to a combination of a persons age, genetics and past exposure to other viruses, including common-cold coronaviruses.

    Parent noted that for the Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines, the second dose may cause greater side effects than the first.

    Thats because the first dose primes the immune system to respond, while the second dose further stimulates the immune cells into action, which leads to some people having more side effects, she said.

    But, she added, the severity of symptoms likely do not correlate with the level of protection.

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    What Does It Mean If You Have No Covid

    Many have reported experiencing side effects, like fatigue, chills or muscle aches after receiving a COVID-19 vaccination, but others may experience no symptoms or just feel arm pain.

    Experts say those symptoms are proof that your immune system is getting ready to fight the virus, but don’t worry if you don’t have any.

    “What we know from the trials is that there’s not a correlation between not experiencing symptoms and not being able to mount an immune response,” said Dr. Albert Ko, a professor of epidemiology and medicine at the Yale School of Public Health in New Haven, Connecticut. “People still mount good antibodies … whether they experienced symptoms or not after vaccination. People should not suspect that if they don’t get symptoms, the vaccine didn’t work.”

    The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines have been shown to have efficacy of around 90%, and the Johnson & Johnson vaccine has a 72% efficacy rate in the United States.

    Then Antibodies Start To Appear

    These 3 Groups Get More COVID Vaccine Side Effects, Says ...

    The genetic material in the vaccine is quickly used up but not before the dendritic cells have had a chance to take the information they’ve collected to the engine room of the immune response: the lymph nodes.

    “The cells go into the draining lymph node, which would be under your arm,” Professor Tangye says.

    This next part of the process is known as the adaptive immune response. It’s where B-cells and T-cells are triggered into action.

    “The T cells and B cells are really fundamental,” Professor Tangye says.

    “This is when really starts becoming specialised to respond to just that .”

    Armed with more information about the threat at hand, killer T-cells go in search of infected cells and swiftly destroy them, says Nobel laureate Peter Doherty.

    “The killer T-cells go round the body, find the virus-infected cells which are making new virus particles, and bump them off,” says Professor Doherty, who won a Nobel prize for discovering exactly how this process works.

    “They’re the hit man of immunity.”

    Meanwhile, B-cells produce special proteins called antibodies that latch onto antigens like a lock and key. By binding to the spike protein, they effectively neutralise the virus and stop it from infecting new cells.

    Helper T-cells, as the name suggests, provide assistance to B-cells and help the body to recruit more immune cells as needed.

    “We need helper T-cell responses to make the antibody response good and help drive the multiplication of those B-cells,” Professor Doherty says.

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    How Do The Reactions To The Different Covid

    Side effects across the Moderna, Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson vaccines are very similar. The two types of side effects you might experience are local and systemic. Local side effectsmeaning in the arm where you got the shotinclude pain, redness or swelling. Systemic side effectsthose that happen throughout the rest of your bodymay include tiredness, headache, muscle pain, chills, fever and nausea.

    On April 13, federal health officials in the use of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine after reports that six women developed a type of blood clot after vaccination. One of the women died, and another is in critical condition. To date, close to seven million individuals in the U.S. have gotten this vaccine. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says the blood clots appear to be extremely rare. A CDC advisory panel postponed a decision on the use of Johnson & Johnsons vaccine until it investigates the cases.

    Is There Risk Of Allergic Reaction From Covid

    According to the CDC, anyone who has a known severe allergy to any of the vaccine ingredients should not receive that vaccine.

    The CDC says people with allergies to certain foods, insects, latex and other common allergens can safely receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Those with a history of severe allergic reaction to injectables or other vaccines should discuss the vaccination with their doctor, who can evaluate and assess their risk.

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    Resting Heart Rate Increases For Some People As A Reaction To The Covid Vaccine

    Researchers from the Scripps Research Translational Institute in California reported on physiological responses to the COVID vaccines, publishing an early version of their study May 4 on medRxiv. The researchers collected data from more than 4,000 Americans using a smartphone-based app that reports on physiological activities from smartwatches, and found that some people experience increased heart rate as a reaction to the vaccine. According to the study, the researchers found that some people’s resting heart rate increased up to an additional 1.5 beats per minute after receiving a dose of either the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine.ae0fcc31ae342fd3a1346ebb1f342fcb

    I Didnt Have A Reaction To The Vaccine Does That Mean Its Not Working

    Are strong reactions to COVID-19 vaccine actually a good thing? Doctors explain

    It’s totally a reasonable concern, Pullen says. But we have a lot of data now showing that yes, it is effective for people who don’t feel those symptoms.

    In the Pfizer vaccine trials, about one out in four reported no side effects. In trials of the Moderna vaccine, side effects were somewhat more common, with 82 percent of individuals experiencing them after the second dose. Despite the range of immune reactions, the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines have shown to be 90 percent effective at preventing Covid-19 in a real-world setting.

    If you dont have any reactions, Pullen says it means your immune system is tuned just right to respond to the vaccine.

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