Global Statistics

All countries
547,070,211
Confirmed
Updated on June 23, 2022 7:26 pm
All countries
519,357,745
Recovered
Updated on June 23, 2022 7:26 pm
All countries
6,346,455
Deaths
Updated on June 23, 2022 7:26 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
547,070,211
Confirmed
Updated on June 23, 2022 7:26 pm
All countries
519,357,745
Recovered
Updated on June 23, 2022 7:26 pm
All countries
6,346,455
Deaths
Updated on June 23, 2022 7:26 pm
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Why Does Covid Vaccine Have To Be Kept So Cold

Can I Get The Covid Vaccine If Im Not Well

Why The Covid-19 Vaccines Must Be Kept So Cold – Cheddar Explains

The NHS has released guidance for people who are feeling unwell but are due to receive their Covid vaccine.

It says you should still attend your appointment even if you have a mild illness, which could include a cold.

However, if you become very unwell you should stay at home and book another appointment for after you have recovered.

If you have Covid symptoms, are self-isolating or waiting for your coronavirus test result you should also not attend your appointment.

You are able to easily cancel and rearrange your vaccine booking through the NHS website.

Meanwhile, the advice in Scotland is similar.

The NHS Inform guidance states: If you’re unwell on the day of your appointment, you should still go for your vaccination if it’s a minor illness without fever.

If you feel very unwell your vaccine may be postponed until you have fully recovered.

Do not attend your vaccine appointment if you feel unwell with symptoms of coronavirus. Self-isolate and book a test instead.

If you have further questions about your upcoming appointment if you are feeling unwell, contact your GP who will be able to assist you.

Can You Catch Covid After Having The Vaccine

Each Covid vaccine has been shown to reduce the risk of you suffering from the virus.

It takes your body a week or two to build up some protection from a first dose.

But, like all medicines, no vaccine is completely effective.

It is possible that you may still get coronavirus despite being inoculated, but the illness should be less severe.

The UK Government advises that you should continue to take the recommended precautions to avoid becoming reinfected.

Pfizer Coronavirus Vaccine No Longer Needs To Be Kept At Super

If approved by regulators, the findings mean the vaccine can be kept in a normal medical freezer at between -15C and -25C for two weeks

The Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus vaccine no longer needs to be kept at super-cold temperatures,;new results suggest, a development which will make it considerably easier to distribute in the UK and internationally.; ;

According to the updated stability data, which has been submitted to regulators in the United States, the vaccine can be kept in a normal medical freezer at between -15C and -25C for as long as two weeks.;

Previously, the vaccine – which uses mRNA technology and was the first in the world to be approved, by UK regulators – had to be deep frozen at between -60C and -80C, temperatures colder than the Antarctic winter.

The vaccines instability has been a major hurdle for distribution efforts. Doses are shipped in specially-designed containers that must be topped up with dry ice every five days and, once it arrives at a clinic, it can be kept in a fridge for only five days.

These stringent requirements have complicated the UKs vaccines rollout, particularly in care homes and pharmacies, and are considered a major stumbling block for lower income countries with fewer resources to establish a super-cold chain.;

In a statement on Friday Ugur Sahin, BioNTechs chief executive, said the finding would offer greater flexibility for vaccination centres.;

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Why Is Making An Mrna Vaccine So Fast

Traditional vaccine development, although well studied, is very time-consuming and cannot respond instantaneously against novel pandemics such as COVID-19.

For example, for seasonal flu, it takes roughly six months from identification of the circulating influenza virus strain to produce a vaccine. The candidate flu vaccine virus is grown for about three weeks to produce a hybrid virus, which is less dangerous and better able to grow in hens eggs. The hybrid virus is then injected into a lot of fertilized eggs and incubated for several days to make more copies. Then the fluid containing virus is harvested from eggs, the vaccine viruses are killed, and the viral proteins are purified over several days.

The mRNA vaccines can leapfrog the hurdles of developing traditional vaccines such as producing noninfectious viruses, or producing viral proteins at medically demanding levels of purity.

MRNA vaccines eliminate much of the manufacturing process because rather than having viral proteins injected, the human body uses the instructions to manufacture viral proteins itself.

Also, mRNA molecules are far simpler than proteins. For vaccines, mRNA is manufactured by chemical rather than biological synthesis, so it is much quicker than conventional vaccines to be redesigned, scaled up and mass-produced.

How Will These Storage Demands Be Met

A coronavirus vaccine may require boosters  here

Keating anticipates that these requirements will significantly complicate the distribution of BNT162b2. In order to ensure the efficacy of the vaccine, according to Keating, people will need to be vaccinated at centralized locations with access to minus 80 degrees Celsius freezers or dry ice containers.

But this equipment is high maintenance in and of itself. Dry ice containers need to be replenished regularly and dry ice supply may prove to be difficult to maintain, Keating says.

Pfizer has preempted criticism of BNT162b2s design by developing and manufacturing storage units specifically tailored to the vaccine. Roughly the size of a suitcase, these units can carry at least 975 doses and are packed with enough dry ice to recharge it one more time, Jessica Atwell, PhD, assistant scientist in the division of global disease epidemiology and control in the department of international health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, tells Verywell.

However, it wont be feasible to ship them worldwide.;

Doing that in high-income countries like the U.S. is one thing,” Atwell says. “Trying to do that in low- and middle-income countries around the world where even a normal 2 to 8 degrees C, refrigerator-like temperature, can be really difficult in many parts of the world. So it’s definitely an implementation challenge.;

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The Chilling Effects Continue

Even more technology has emerged over time, with cold chain systems increasingly adapting to lower-income country settings: refrigeration and freezer units have become more portable and with digital remote monitoring systems now a common feature, so they can not only be carried on foot to hard-to-reach populations but stock levels can be managed more effectively. Refrigeration equipment also use battery power or solar energy, overcoming the challenge of unstable electricity.

More importantly, these technological innovations have been progressively matched with major investments in human capital through sophisticated training for health workers and technicians to enable them to better manage the vaccine cold chain.

So What’s In The Vaccine

Says the FDA: “The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine includes the following ingredients: mRNA, lipids azanediyl)bisbis, 2 -N,N-ditetradecylacetamide, 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine, and cholesterol), potassium chloride, monobasic potassium phosphate, sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate, and sucrose.” Next see what you should tell your vaccine administrator before getting yours.

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What Are The Refrigeration Requirements

The Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine will need to be optimally stored at minus 94 degrees Fahrenheit and will degrade in around five days at normal refrigeration temperatures of slightly above freezing.

In contrast, Moderna claims its vaccine can be maintained at most home or medical freezer temperatures for up to six months for shipping and longer-term storage. Moderna also claims its vaccine can remain stable at standard refrigerated conditions, of 36 to 46 degrees Fahrenheit, for up to 30 days after thawing, within the six-month shelf life.

Why Does The Covid

Back-up plan in storing COVID-19 vaccines during calamity, still being studied – vaccine czar

Plus, how to make sure yours has been properly stored to remain effective.

More than two million doses of the two new vaccines against COVID-19 have been put in people’s arms since December 14. But racing the shots to the frontline health care workers hasn’t been an easy featthe Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine specifically must be stored at subzero temperatures, creating a logistical puzzle of dry ice and specialized freezers. And while the Moderna vaccine remains stable at slightly balmier temperatures, it too must stay frozen throughout shipping and long-term storage.

So what’s the deal with these cold storage requirements? Here’s why it’s critical that the new COVID-19 vaccines are kept super chilly and how to make sure the one you get has been stored properly.

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Why Supply Chains Are Even More Complicated For The Covid

All that said, health systems in the United States and around the world have been administering vaccines for decades, and there is plenty of experience and know-how for effectively bringing vaccines to people.

But again, the Covid-19 vaccination effort has to happen at an even larger scale than just about any other vaccination effort to date. And it cant seize infrastructure from existing vaccines, since immunizations for illnesses like measles, influenza, polio, and meningitis are still needed at the same time.

That means many of the things needed to distribute a Covid-19 vaccine have to be added to whats already on the market; freezers, refrigeratedshipping containers, and remote temperature monitoring systems cant simply be cannibalized from other vaccine supply chains.

The scale of a Covid-19 vaccination campaign could also create other bottlenecks. Vaccine vials require a specific type of glass that can tolerate low temperatures and remain sterile, and there may not be enough of this glass to go around right away. Even the self-sealing rubber stoppers on the vials could face a shortfall. Syringes, personal protective equipment, and trained personnel to administer vaccines are already facing a crunch from dealing with the ongoing pandemic.

The problem is that these fragments of DNA and RNA are delicate. They can degrade quickly on their own, even at refrigerated temperatures. Thats why freezing them is so important for keeping them intact.

Related

Why Do Vaccines Have To Be Kept Cool

The delivery of COVAX doses is not the only Ghana-first event in the history of global health. Back in 1974, the World Health Organization established the Expanded Programme on Immunization . In order to assess the feasibility of a single, global immunisation schedule incorporating vaccines against polio, measles, tuberculosis,;tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis, the EPI was initially piloted in Ghana.

One major challenge quickly became apparent: as vaccines were temperature-sensitive biological products, they needed to be continuously stored in a limited temperature range from the time they were manufactured until the moment of vaccination. Any exposure to temperatures outside this range would irreversibly affect vaccine potency, diminishing the ability of vaccines to protect vaccinated patients.

The solution was a workable cold chain”.;A term adopted in 1976, it described a global network of cold rooms, cold boxes, vaccine carriers, refrigerators, and freezers that kept vaccines at the WHO-recommended temperature during the long journey from the manufacturing line to the syringe.

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Here’s Who Should Not Get The Vaccine Says The Fda

You may have heard that a small number of people had severe allergic reactions to the Pfizer vaccine. “Severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, have been reported following administration of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine during mass vaccination outside of the clinical trial setting,” says the FDA. Therefore: “You should not get the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine if you:;

  • had a severe allergic reaction after a previous dose of this vaccine
  • had a severe allergic reaction to any ingredient of this vaccine.”

;”What the Pfizer people are saying is that if you have a history of a severe allergic reaction, you should either not take this vaccine, or if you do take it, take it in the context of a place where if you do develop an allergic reaction, it could be readily and effectively treated,” said Dr. Anthony Fauci in a CNBC Healthy Returns Livestream. Keep reading to see what exactly is in the vaccine, to see if you might be allergic.

What Are Problems With Mrna

Viruses 101: Why the new coronavirus is so contagious ...

MRNA technology isnt new. It was shown a while back that when synthetic mRNA is injected into an animal, the cells can produce a desired protein. But the progress remained slow. Thats because mRNA is not only notoriously unstable and easy to degrade into smaller components, it is also easily destroyed by the human bodys immune defenses, which make delivering it to the target very inefficient.

But beginning in 2005, researchers figured out how to stabilize mRNA and package it into small particles to deliver it as a vaccine. The mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are expected to be the first using this technology to be approved by the FDA.

After a decade of work, the mRNA vaccines are now ready for evaluation. Physicians will be watching for unintended immune reactions, which can be both helpful and detrimental.

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Why Must These Vaccines Be Stored At Different Temperatures

The radical difference in these vaccines storage temperature requirements has to do with their respective designs. Both BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 are messenger RNA vaccines, meaning that they were made using fragments of viral genetic material.

Essentially, Atwell says, mRNA vaccines are lipid nanoparticles that encapsulate the messenger RNA inside and have a stabilizing effect. She attributes the 50 °C variation in their storage temperature requirements to the sort of lipid nanoparticles that encapsulates the mRNA.

AZD1222, on the other hand, is what Keating calls a viral-vectored vaccine, meaning that it was made by attaching proteins from the coronavirus to another, harmless virus, such as an adenovirus. In general, according to Atwell, mRNA is less stableor less tolerant of a range of temperaturesthan viruses or viral particles, which explains the difference in storage temperature requirements.

Cold temperatures, Atwell says, are necessary to prevent the mRNA vaccines from degrading, although she believes that both Pfizer and Moderna are currently conducting stability tests to determine whether their vaccines can tolerate higher temperatures.;

The first COVID-19 vaccine candidate to receive an emergency use authorization from the FDA was Pfizer-BioNTech’s BNT162b2 on December 11, followed by Moderna’s mRNA-1273 on December 18. Distribution for both vaccines in the U.S. has begun.

Fact Check: Mrna Vaccines Kept At Very Cold Temperatures So That They Do Not Break Apart; Covid

10 Min Read

With hundreds of thousands of views social media, posts referring to Pfizer and BioNTechs COVID-19 vaccine candidate claim that any vaccine that needs to be shipped and stored at -80 degrees isnt a vaccine but rather a transfection agent, kept alive so it can infect your cells and transfer genetic material. Alleging that the vaccine will be used for genetic manipulation of humans on a massive scale, this claim is false.

The claim originated in a;Nov. 15 tweet from a user known as The Disruptive Physician with the handle @DocEvenhouse;. Facebook and Instagram;sharing screenshots of the tweet;can be found;here;,;here;and;here;.;;

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A Story Of Technology And Innovation

A manual temperature recording procedure with a mixed compliance record, coupled with unreliable temperature reports, provided the impetus for an innovation drive to create an end-to-end temperature monitoring system for vaccines at every point in the cold chain.

Have you read?

These innovative solutions;really started moving at pace in the 1970s and 1980s. Working;with a wooden cold box developed by a laboratory in Sweden in 1974, Electrolux Luxembourg developed a vaccine storage container that could be transported easily. The Luxembourg cold box was successfully tested in Ghana, before becoming a widely used model for manufacturers. Three years after the invention of the cold box, a manufacturer of portable containers based in the United States collaborated with the Pan-American Health Organization to create a vaccine carrier, which has now become an integral part of outreach immunisation around the world.

Volunteer with a portable vaccine carrierCredit: Gavi/2006/Indras Getachew

Companies in the United States and Switzerland went on to create a cold chain monitor in the early 1980s, an innovation that finally gave the global immunisation community a reliable way to monitor vaccine stores at all levels, from manufacturer to delivery sites in different countries.

How Will Storage Temperature Requirements Impact Initial Vaccine Distribution

Inside the cold, complex world of getting a covid-19 vaccine into arms

The types of freezers that can keep the current COVID-19 vaccines stable, especially Pfizers, are expensive and generally only found in hospitals and labs. A clinic, a nursing home, or even health departments may not have freezers that can hold things at -94°F, Dr. Talaat says.

Transportation and storage are two of the biggest hurdles for the worldwide immunization rollout. A Reuters report from last month called the vaccines complex requirements an obstacle for even the most sophisticated hospitals in the United States. Rural and underfunded healthcare providers without the resources to improve their cold storage face even greater obstacles.

Since Modernas vaccine holds up well in normal freezers, Pfizers subzero option will be the most difficult to ship. The company is currently shipping its vaccine in so-called pizza trays, which hold 195 vials that remain stable for a few weeks, thanks to a steady supply of dry ice.

Right now, the Pfizer vaccine is being stored at the companys production facilities and at freezer farms, huge storage sites equipped with specialty freezers about the size of refrigerators.

Vials of Moderna vaccine are still difficult to ship, but have caused fewer headaches so far. You go from specialty freezers that only labs and hospitals have to freezers that any clinic will have, Dr. Talaat explains. Both vaccines are already being distributed to government officials, healthcare workers, and nursing home residents.

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