Risk Increases With Certain Medical Conditions
People of any age with certain medical conditions are also at a higher risk for more severe illness. If you have any of these underlying conditions or other serious medical conditions , call your doctor right away if you develop symptoms of COVID-19. Early treatment options are available for high-risk individuals.
Why Was The Coronavirus Renamed To Covid
The WHO press release of February 11 explained why a new name was needed for this disease: to enable discussion on disease prevention, spread, transmissibility, severity, and treatment.
Diseases are officially named by WHO in the International Classification of Diseases . For COVID-19, the name was decided based on agreed guidelines between the WHO, the World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The name, and its abbreviation, was chosen because it didnt refer to a specific geographic location, a specific animal, or a specific group of people. It also had to be easy to pronounce and related to the disease.
If You Test Positive:
Follow the table below to know the steps to take if you test positive. This table is intended for members of the general public and may be applied to K-12 schools, colleges and universities, and workplaces. It does not apply to healthcare facilities or high-risk congregate settings. In the absence of setting-specific guidance from CDC, at this time, VDH recommends not applying this guidance to children or staff in child care settings as a best practice these settings can consider applying it to staff if there are critical staffing shortages.
*People who are severely ill from COVID-19 and those with weakened immune systems might need to isolate for longer. They may also require a viral test to help determine when they can be around others. These individuals are recommended to isolate for at least 10 days and up to 20 days. They should talk to their healthcare provider about when they can end isolation.
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Indiana’s Novel Coronavirus Response
On March 6, 2020, the state Department of Health confirmed Indianas first case of COVID-19, a novel respiratory virus first identified in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 that became a global pandemic.
On March 16, the Department of Health reported the first death in Indiana due to COVID-19. On May 18, Indiana confirmed its first case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19.
The state Department of Health is working with federal and local partners, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , to respond to this evolving public health situation.
Please consult this page for updated news and guidance on the COVID-19 pandemic. Updates will be made as new information becomes available. for the most recent press releases related to COVID-19.
Contact your healthcare provider if you experience symptoms of COVID-19. Seek care immediately if you experience symptoms such as trouble breathing, persistent pain or pressure in the chest, new confusion, inability to wake or stay awake, or if your lips or face turn blue.
General questions from the public or healthcare provider inquiries about COVID-19 may be directed to the state Department of Health COVID-19 Call Center at the toll-free number: 877-826-0011 .
The first vaccine doses arrived in Indiana on Dec. 14. For information about the COVID-19 vaccine, visit ourshot.in.gov.
Face Masks And Respiratory Hygiene
The WHO and the US CDC recommend individuals wear non-medical face coverings in public settings where there is an increased risk of transmission and where social distancing measures are difficult to maintain. This recommendation is meant to reduce the spread of the disease by asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic individuals and is complementary to established preventive measures such as social distancing. Face coverings limit the volume and travel distance of expiratory droplets dispersed when talking, breathing, and coughing. A face covering without vents or holes will also filter out particles containing the virus from inhaled and exhaled air, reducing the chances of infection. But, if the mask include an exhalation valve, a wearer that is infected would transmit the virus outwards through it, despite any certification they can have. So the masks with exhalation valve are not for the infected wearers, and are not reliable to stop the pandemic in a large scale. Many countries and local jurisdictions encourage or mandate the use of face masks or cloth face coverings by members of the public to limit the spread of the virus.
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Should I Wear A Face Mask
The CDC recommends wearing a cloth face coverings in public, especially in places where its hard to maintain at least six feet of distance between yourself and another person. Face masks protect both you and the people around you. Cloth face masks are being recommended because we now know individuals with COVID-19 could have mild or no symptoms, while still spreading the virus to others.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Weve come a long way since the first cases of coronavirus were confirmed in the United States. Weve learned a lot about the virus and how to treat patients who have it. Weve also greatly increased our ability for testing. You our communities have made tremendous efforts to adapt, too. Its heartening to see so many people protecting each other by wearing face masks in public and finding ways to have fun while respecting the rules of social distancing.
The changes weve all made to stay safe and healthy can feel challenging. But please stay vigilant. We know its not easy, but its critical. COVID-19 shouldn’t be taken lightly. While most people get only mild symptoms, others develop serious complications of the lungs, brain and heart. There may also be other long-term effects that we dont yet know about. And, so far, theres no cure. Fortunately, there are steps we can all take to prevent this. But for them to be effective, we all need to do them all of the time.
If I Have A Positive Test For Coronavirus How Long Should I Self
According to current CDC recommendations, you should self-isolate until you’ve met all three of the following criteria:
- It’s been 10 days since your symptoms first appeared.
- You’ve not had a fever for 24 hours and you’ve not used fever-lowing medications during this time.
- Your COVID-19 symptoms have improved.
While at home, ideally self-isolate within separate room of your home if possible to limit interaction with other family members. If you cant stay 100% isolated in a separate room, keep 6 feet away from others and wear a cloth mask, wash your hands often/family members wash hands often, and frequently disinfect commonly touched surfaces and shared areas.
You don’t need to be retested to be around others outside your home. However, since everyone and every case is unique, follow your healthcare provider’s recommendations for testing.
If you have a weakened immune system or have had a severe case of COVID-19, the CDC’s criteria do not apply to you. You may need to stay home for up to 20 days after your symptoms first appeared. Talk with your healthcare provider about your situation.
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If Ive Tested Positive For Covid
If you have mild COVID-19 symptoms, you will likely need to manage your health at home. Follow these tips:
- If you have a fever, drink plenty of fluids , get lots of rest, take acetaminophen .
- If you have a cough, lie on your side or sit up . Add a teaspoon of honey to your hot tea or hot water . Gargle with salt water. Call your healthcare provider or pharmacist for advice about over-the-counter, comfort care product, like cough suppressants, cough drops/lozenges. Have a friend or family member pick up any needed medicines. You must stay at home.
- If you are anxious about your breathing, try to relax. Take slow deep breaths in through your nose and slowly release through pursed lips . If you are having trouble breathing, call 911.
If you have a mild case of COVID-19, you should start to feel better in a few days to a week. If you think your symptoms are getting worse, call your healthcare provider.
How Can I Protect Myself And Others From Covid
Recent surges of COVID-19 in some countries are a reminder of the importance of continuing to take precautions. Here are some things you and your family can take to help avoid infection:
- Avoid crowded places, confined and enclosed spaces with poor ventilation, and try to practice physical distancing from people in public, keeping at least 1 metre distance between yourself and others
- Wear a mask when in public places where there is community transmission and where physical distancing is not possible
- Wash your hands frequently using soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub
- Keep all indoor spaces well ventilated
- Cover mouth and nose with flexed elbow or tissue when coughing or sneezing. Dispose of used tissue immediately
- Regularly clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces like phones, doorknobs, light switches and countertops
- Seek medical care early if you or your child has a fever, cough, difficulty breathing or other symptoms of COVID-19
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Indoor Ventilation And Avoiding Crowded Indoor Spaces
The CDC recommends that crowded indoor spaces should be avoided. When indoors, increasing the rate of air change, decreasing recirculation of air and increasing the use of outdoor air can reduce transmission. The WHO recommends ventilation and air filtration in public spaces to help clear out infectious aerosols.
Exhaled respiratory particles can build-up within enclosed spaces with inadequate ventilation. The risk of COVID-19 infection increases especially in spaces where people engage in physical exertion or raise their voice as this increases exhalation of respiratory droplets. Prolonged exposure to these conditions, typically more than 15 minutes, leads to higher risk of infection.
Displacement ventilation with large natural inlets can move stale air directly to the exhaust in laminar flow while significantly reducing the concentration of droplets and particles. Passive ventilation reduces energy consumption and maintenance costs but may lack controllability and heat recovery. Displacement ventilation can also be achieved mechanically with higher energy and maintenance costs. The use of large ducts and openings helps to prevent mixing in closed environments. Recirculation and mixing should be avoided because recirculation prevents dilution of harmful particles and redistributes possibly contaminated air, and mixing increases the concentration and range of infectious particles and keeps larger particles in the air.
What Is The Treatment For Coronavirus
There is no specific treatment for coronavirus , and supportive care is aimed at relieving symptoms in mild cases.
Patients with mild illness are usually advised to remain home and self-isolate for 14 days to avoid spreading the virus. Treatments for mild coronavirus symptoms include:
- Pain relievers
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How Are Covid Variants Named
The WHO announced in May that it would start naming variants using Greek letters.
Variants all have scientific names for example, Omicrons is B.1.1.529 but previously people were largely referring to them by the places they were first discovered.
The WHO says: While they have their advantages, scientific names can be difficult to say and recall, and are prone to misreporting. As a result, people often resort to calling variants by the places where they are detected, which is stigmatising and discriminatory.
Naming variants after the places they were first discovered wrongly apportioned blame to those countries. For example, two of the five existing variants of concern were first identified in South Africa, but this is because South Africa is a world leader in genomic sequencing, not because it has been letting Covid run rife.
The WHO added that another advantage of using Greek letters is that they are simple and easy to say.
Here are the five current variants of concern:
- Alpha B.1.1.7 first identified in the UK
- Beta B.1.351 first identified in South Africa
- Gamma P.1 first identified in Brazil
- Delta B.1.617.2 first identified in India
- Omicron B.1.1.529 first identified in South Africa
The Delta variant is currently the dominant strain across the world.
Have Certain Ethnic Groups Been Harder Hit By Covid
Yes. Many researchers have analyzed data across the country and in some large cities, looking at number of confirmed cases and deaths based on race and ethnicity and related factors. They found that African Americans and the Latino-Hispanic populations have disproportionately higher rates of hospitalizations and deaths due to COVID-19.
Researchers suspect this might be because these ethnic groups tend to:
- Live in more crowded housing situations living in densely populated areas and in multi-generational households making social distancing practices difficult.
- Work in consumer-facing service industries and are more likely to use public transportation to get to work, putting them at risk for increased exposure to COVID-19.
- Be at increased risk of severe illness if they get COVID-19 because of higher rates of existing medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, asthma, and heart, liver and kidney diseases.
- Be more likely to be uninsured or lack a consistent care source, which limits access to COVID-19 testing and treatment services.
Researchers are still studying other factors that may make ethnic groups more susceptible to negative COVID-19 outcomes, including:
- Inability to wake up from sleep.
- Bluish lips or face.
This list does not include all possible symptoms. Contact your healthcare provider if you are concerned you may have coronavirus or have any severe symptoms.
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Is It Possible To Test Negative For Covid
Yes, its possible. There are several reasons for false negative test results meaning you really DO have COVID-19 although the test result says you dont.
Reasons for a false negative COVID-19 test result include:
- You were tested too early in the course of illness. The virus hasnt multiplied in your body to the level that it could be detected by the test.
- They didnt get a good specimen. The healthcare personnel may not have swabbed deeply enough in the nasal cavity to collect a good sample. There could also be handling errors and transportation errors.
- The COVID-19 test itself was not sensitive or specific enough to detect COVID-19. Sensitivity refers to the ability of the test to detect the smallest amount of virus. Specificity refers to the ability of the test to detect only the COVID-19 virus and not other similar viruses. Many different commercial and hospital laboratories have developed tests for COVID-19. All must meet standards, but no test is 100% sensitive and 100% specific for COVID-19. This is why there is always a possibility of false negative and false positive tests.
When To Seek Help
If someone develops possible COVID-19 symptoms, they should stay at home. They should also avoid public spaces and not use public transport. If possible, they need to remain in a separate room in the home, away from other people or pets.
A person with symptoms should call a doctor via phone if possible. They should not visit a medical facility without calling ahead first, as this could expose other people to the virus. A doctor can provide advice on what to do next.
with COVID-19 develop mild symptoms and recover on their own. However, if a person develops the following symptoms, they should seek emergency medical care:
- bluish lips, face, or skin
- trouble breathing
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How Soon After Becoming Infected With Covid
The time between becoming infected and showing symptoms can range from 2 to 14 days. The average time before experiencing symptoms is five days. Symptoms can range in severity from very mild to severe. In about 80% of patients, COVID-19 causes only mild symptoms, although this may change as variants emerge.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome was first reported in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and spread to more than 25 other countries. MERS originated in camels and emerged to infect people. Symptoms usually include fever, cough, and shortness of breath, and often progress to pneumonia. About 3 or 4 out of every 10 patients reported with MERS have died. MERS cases continue to occur, primarily in the Arabian Peninsula however, as of 2019, there have been only two confirmed cases of MERS in the US, both in 2014.
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Why Antibodies Become Ineffective Against Omicron
Antibodies against the Omicron variant of Covid-19 are ineffective due to the existence of a huge number of mutations, including more than 30 on its spike protein, according to a study published in the Journal of Autoimmunity. An extraordinary number of mutations, particularly in the Spike protein of the Omicron strain, have been linked to its high transmissibility and infectivity.
These modifications also enable it to resist pre-existing antibodies in the human body, which contributes to an increasing number of re-infections and breakthrough cases. The University of Missouri researchers wanted to learn more about the alterations detected in the Omicron variant‘s S-protein.
Will My Child Be Able To Get The Covid
An increasing number of vaccines are now being approved for use in children, so its important to stay informed of guidance by your local and national health authorities.
Both the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines have been approved by WHO for use in children 12 years and older. Studies are ongoing into vaccine efficacy and safety in children under 12 years of age and we will update when more information is available.
At this time WHO recommends that countries should vaccinate children only when high vaccine coverage with two doses has been achieved in higher priority-use groups. Children and adolescents tend to have milder disease compared to adults, so unless they are part of a group at higher risk of severe COVID-19, it is less urgent to vaccinate them than older people, those with chronic health conditions and health workers.
If you live in an area of high COVID-19 transmission, remind your children of the importance of us all taking precautions to protect each other, such as avoiding crowded spaces, physical distancing, hand washing and wearing a mask.
It is critical that children continue to receive the recommended childhood vaccines.
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