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Updated on June 27, 2022 6:43 pm
All countries
Updated on June 27, 2022 6:43 pm
All countries
Updated on June 27, 2022 6:43 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
Updated on June 27, 2022 6:43 pm
All countries
Updated on June 27, 2022 6:43 pm
All countries
Updated on June 27, 2022 6:43 pm
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Will The Covid Vaccine Prevent Transmission

What Do We Know About The Astrazeneca Adenovirus Covid

Early research shows Pfizer vaccine could prevent COVID-19 transmission

An analysis of Phase 3 clinical trial data suggests that the COVID-19 vaccine developed by AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford is effective and safe. AstraZeneca presented interim results in a press release on March 22, 2021. Within a day, however, the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases released a statement expressing concern that AstraZeneca’s analysis may contain outdated information and may provide “an incomplete view of the efficacy data.” On March 25th, AstraZeneca released a new analysis, also in a press release, that included more recent trial data. The FDA will have the opportunity to carefully examine and conduct its own analysis of all of the trial data when AstraZeneca applies for emergency use authorization , which is expected to happen in the coming weeks.

According to AstraZeneca’s most recent analysis, vaccine recipients were 76% less likely to develop symptomatic COVID infection than those who received a placebo. The vaccine was also 100% effective for protecting against severe COVID and hospitalization; there were eight cases of severe COVID in the placebo group, compared to none in the vaccine group.

The analysis looked at results from a trial of about 32,000 participants from the US, France, Chile, and Peru. Two-thirds of the study participants were randomly selected to received two doses of the vaccine, spaced four weeks apart. The remaining one-third of participants got a saltwater placebo.

Q What Information Is Available About Myocarditis And Pericarditis Following Vaccination With Pfizer

A. Post-authorization safety surveillance data pertaining to myocarditis and pericarditis demonstrate increased risks of myocarditis and pericarditis, particularly within 7 days following the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine, with the risk being higher in males under 40 years of age than in females or older males. The observed risk is highest in males 12 through 17 years of age.

The Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers Administering Vaccine for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine includes a warning about the risk of myocarditis and pericarditis, and the Vaccine Information Fact Sheet for Recipients and Caregivers include information about myocarditis and pericarditis. The Vaccine Information Fact Sheet for Recipients and Caregivers notes that vaccine recipients should seek medical attention right away if they experience any of the following symptoms after vaccination:

  • Chest pain

A: Yes. Providers administering Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine must report to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and to Pfizer the following information associated with the vaccine of which they become aware:;

  • Vaccine administration errors whether or not associated with an adverse event
  • Serious adverse events
  • Cases of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome
  • Cases of COVID-19 that result in hospitalization or death

I Have A Severe Allergy Can I Get The Mrna Covid

There have been rare cases of people having a severe allergic reaction after receiving the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. As a result, everyone getting an mRNA vaccine in the US must be observed for at least 15 minutes after getting their shot, so they can receive immediate medical treatment if they experience a severe allergic reaction.

Despite the small risk, most people with a history of severe allergy can safely get the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. This includes people who are allergic to food, pollen, bee stings, and medications taken by mouth. If you have a history of severe allergy, tell the person administering your vaccine. You will be observed for at least 30 minutes, instead of the usual 15 minutes.

If you have a history of allergic reactions to injectable medications or other vaccines, the CDC recommends asking your doctor if you should get one of the currently available mRNA vaccines.

There are some people who should not get an mRNA COVID vaccine. You should not get one if you are allergic to any components of the mRNA vaccine, which include polyethylene glycol and polysorbate. And you should not get the second dose of an mRNA vaccine if you had an allergic reaction within the first 30 minutes after receiving the first vaccine dose.

If you have questions regarding the safety of the COVID vaccine for you, your best option is to talk to your doctor.

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Should I Go To The Doctor Or Dentist For Nonurgent Appointments

Many medical and dental practices have instituted comprehensive safety measures to help protect you, the doctor and office staff, and other patients. If you feel anxious about visiting in person, call the practice.

Many doctor’s offices are increasingly providing telehealth services. This may mean appointments by phone call, or virtual visits using a video chat service. Ask to schedule a telehealth appointment with your doctor for a new or ongoing nonurgent matter. If, after speaking to you, your doctor would like to see you in person, he or she will let you know.

What if your appointments are not urgent but also don’t fall into the low-risk category? For example, if you have been advised to have periodic scans after cancer remission, if your doctor sees you regularly to monitor for a condition for which you’re at increased risk, or if your treatment varies based on your most recent test results? In these and similar cases, call your doctor for advice.

Summary Of Recent Changes

  • Data were added indicating that COVID-19 vaccination remains highly effective against COVID-19 hospitalization and death caused by the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2.
  • Data were added from studies published since the last update that further characterize reduced COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against asymptomatic and mild symptomatic infections with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2.
  • Data were added from studies published since the last update that suggest decreased vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic disease, and hospitalization in several groups of immunocompromised persons and potential benefit of a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine in immunocompromised populations.
  • Data were added summarizing several small studies of heterologous COVID-19 vaccination series , which found that a dose of adenovirus vector vaccine followed by a dose of mRNA vaccine elicits antibody responses at least as high as two doses of mRNA vaccine.
  • Data were added from recent studies examining the duration of protection conferred by COVID-19 vaccination.
  • Data were added from recent studies describing clinical outcomes and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 infections in fully vaccinated persons.

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Fully Vaccinated Doesnt Mean Immune To Covid

At one point, we thought that being fully vaccinated meant we could leave our masks behind and go back to the normal that weve been longing for. The new COVID-19 variants have pretty much killed that dream. Dr. Cardona says now is not the time to let your guard down. While the vaccines are potent, theres still a chance that you could become infected. ;;

Fully vaccinated means that you completed a COVID-19 vaccine series as recommended for the best protection against severe complications such as hospitalizations and/or death. No vaccine offers 100% protection against illness, yet it does give you a better chance to fight off the infectious consequences of being exposed to the SARS-CoV2 virus. ;

Can A Person Who Has Been Infected With Coronavirus Get Infected Again

Natural immunity to COVID-19 is the protection that results from having been sick. But we don’t know how long natural immunity lasts, or how strong it is. We are learning that vaccination strengthens the natural immune response and reduces the risk that you will get infected again.

There have been confirmed cases of reinfection with COVID-19. In other words, a person got sick with COVID-19, recovered, and then became infected again. It’s also worth noting that someone who has been reinfected even someone with no symptoms has the potential to spread the virus to others.

We have also learned that people who have gotten sick with COVID-19 benefit from getting vaccinated. A study published in MMWR reported that people who were unvaccinated were about twice as likely to be reinfected as people who were fully vaccinated.

The bottom line? Get vaccinated whether or not youve already had COVID-19.

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Who Do Masks Protect: The Wearer Others Or Both

We’ve known for some time that masks help prevent people from spreading the coronavirus to others. Based on an analysis of existing information, a new study contends that masks may also protect mask wearers from becoming infected themselves.

Different masks, writes the study author, block viral particles to varying degrees. If masks lead to lower “doses” of virus being inhaled, then fewer people may become infected, and those who do may have milder illness.

Researchers in China experimented with hamsters to test the effect of masks. They put healthy hamsters and hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2 in a cage, and separated some of the healthy and infected hamsters with a barrier made of surgical masks. Many of the “masked” healthy hamsters did not get infected, and those who did got less sick than previously healthy “maskless” hamsters.

A similar experiment cannot ethically be done in humans. But researchers have studied doses of flu virus and found that people who inhaled a higher dose of flu virus were more likely to get sick and experience symptoms. Observations of coronavirus outbreaks in processing plants and on cruise ships also support the idea that masks may help protect mask wearers.

Without more research, we can’t be certain that masks protect the wearer. But we do know they don’t hurt, and that they protect others.

Why Didnt Clinical Trials Track Infections

Scientists still researching whether vaccine prevents COVID-19 transmission

The clinical trials testing vaccines from Moderna, Pfizer-BioNTech, and Johnson & Johnson measured each vaccines ability to prevent serious disease, not its ability to block transmission of the virus.

Frankly, transmission wasnt the primary concern at that point of the trials, Kindrachuk says. It was to make sure people werent getting sick.

With thousands of people being hospitalized and dying every day, the first priority was to measure whether a vaccine prevented severe disease and death. While researchers recognized that it was important to measure whether vaccines prevented asymptomatic infection, doing that was very difficult and costly, Dean says. So researchers tracked symptomatic infections instead. That left unanswered the question of whether any vaccinated people without symptoms could have an asymptomatic infection.

There were some questions about whether you could still have virus in your nose and still be infectious, Dean says.

Even a tiny amount of virus in a vaccinated person might present a risk to others.

We dont have a good idea of what the infectious dose is for somebodyhow much virus you have to be exposed to to get infected, Kindrachuk says. Its not about the one dose you get in a single moment, but the accumulation over minutes to hours.

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What Do I Need To Know About Washing My Hands Effectively

Wash your hands;often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the bathroom; before eating; after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing; and after handling anything that’s come from outside your home.

  • If soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol, covering all surfaces of your hands and rubbing them together until they feel dry.
  • Always wash hands with soap and water if hands are visibly dirty.
  • The;CDC’s handwashing website;has detailed instructions and a video about effective handwashing procedures.

What Are Mrna Vaccines And How Do They Work To Help Prevent Covid

mRNA, or messenger RNA, is genetic material that contains instructions for making proteins. mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 contain synthetic mRNA. Inside the body, the mRNA enters human cells and instructs them to produce the “spike” protein found on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The body recognizes the spike protein as an invader, and starts producing antibodies against it. Soon after, the cell breaks down the mRNA into harmless pieces If the antibodies later encounter the actual virus, they are ready to recognize and destroy it before it causes illness.

Two mRNA vaccines, one created by Pfizer and BioNTech and another developed by Moderna, were granted emergency use authorization by the FDA in December 2020. In August 2021, the FDA granted full approval to the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine for use in people ages 16 years and older. The transition from EUA status to full licensure was based on additional data and longer follow-up showing that the vaccine met certain safety, effectiveness, and manufacturing quality standards.

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More Research Is Needed

The good news is that studies are underway that directly assess transmission. Several universities in the U.S., for instance, are participating in the PreventCOVIDU study to assess whether the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine prevents transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This study will evaluate the vaccines ability to prevent infection, reduce viral load, and prevent transmission. Results of the study should be published later this year. Other similar studies are underway.

Covid Vaccines Slash Viral Spread But Delta Is An Unknown

Israeli study suggests Pfizer COVID

A dose of the PfizerBioNTech COVID-19 vaccine is administered at the Sheba Medical Center near Tel Aviv, Israel.Credit: Jack Guez/AFP/Getty

Many vaccines have been shown to provide strong protection against COVID-19. Now, growing evidence finds that they also substantially reduce the risk of passing on the virus SARS-CoV-2 crucial information for governments making decisions about how best to control the pandemic.

However, the studies were done before the highly transmissible Delta variant became prevalent and scientists say it might be more easily spread by vaccinated people than are earlier variants.

Two studies, from Israel, posted as preprints on 16 July, find that two doses of the vaccine made by pharmaceutical company Pfizer, based in New York City, and biotechnology company BioNTech, based in Mainz, Germany, are 81% effective at preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections. And vaccinated people who do get infected are up to 78% less likely to spread the virus to household members than are unvaccinated people. Overall, this adds up to very high protection against transmission, say researchers.

The studies reflect population-level trends, say researchers. Its good news, says Natalie Dean, a biostatistician at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. But its not quite good enough, she notes, because it means that vaccinated people can still occasionally spread the infection.

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Q: What Data Is Available To The Public To Review

A: The FDA posted its analyses of the safety and effectiveness data in a briefing document made available in connection with the December 10, 2020, meeting of the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. Following issuance of the emergency use authorization , the FDA made its publicly available, which summarizes the FDAs evaluation of the safety and effectiveness data to support the EUA.;

Following emergency use authorization of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine to include use in individuals 12 through 15 years of age, the FDA also made its publicly available, which summarizes the FDAs evaluation of the safety and effectiveness data to support;the EUA.

In addition, letters of authorization, fact sheets and full EUA prescribing information documents are posted on the FDAs web site.

Q: What Effectiveness Data Supported The Emergency Use Authorization Of Pfizer

A: The data to support the EUA of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine include an analysis of 36,523 participants in the ongoing randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled international study, the majority of whom are U.S. participants, who completed the 2-dose vaccination regimen and did not have evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection through 7 days after the second dose. Among these participants, 18,198 received the vaccine and 18,325 received saline placebo. The vaccine was 95 percent effective in preventing COVID-19 disease among these clinical trial participants with 8 COVID-19 cases in the vaccine group and 162 COVID-19 cases in the placebo group. Of these 170 COVID-19 cases, 1 in the vaccine group and 3 in the placebo group were classified as severe.

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Can Fully Vaccinated People Still Transmit The Virus To Others Including Other Vaccinated People

While it is possible,;Dr. Cardona says that the ability to transmit COVID-19 may occur at a lower rate. She adds that this could also be a reality for people who dont have a good immune response to vaccines. ;

The elderly, those with immune or chronic health conditions or those with underlying health disorders may not have the best protective response to vaccines, such as the COVID-19 vaccines. We are still collecting data and doing ongoing research about the vaccine responses in these vulnerable populations.;

Evidence Suggests Covid Vaccines Reduce Transmission: How It Works

Study shows AstraZeneca vaccine could reduce transmission of virus

by Jennifer Juno and Adam Wheatley, The Conversation

Since COVID-19 vaccines began rolling out across the world, many scientists have been hesitant to say they can reduce transmission of the virus.

Their primary purpose is to prevent you from getting really sick with the virus, and it quickly became clear the vaccines are highly efficient at doing this. Efficacy against symptoms of the disease in clinical trials has ranged from 50% to 95% , and similar effectiveness has been reported in the real world.

However, even the best vaccines we have are not perfect, which means some vaccinated people still end up catching the virus. We call these cases “breakthrough” infections. Indeed, between April 10 and May 1, six people in hotel quarantine in New South Wales tested positive for COVID-19, despite being fully vaccinated.

But how likely are vaccinated people to actually pass the virus on, if they do get infected? Evidence is increasing that, not only do COVID-19 vaccines either stop you getting sick or substantially reduce the severity of your symptoms, they’re also likely to substantially reduce the chance of transmitting the virus to others.

But how does this work, and what does it mean for the pandemic?

Vaccinated people are much less likely to pass on the virus

Early evidence from testing in animals, where researchers can directly study transmission, suggested immunization with COVID-19 vaccines could prevent animals passing on the virus.

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